EDITOR’S CHOICE ARTICLE –Neuroprotection by Human Dental Pulp Mesenchymal Stem Cells: From Billions to Nano

Journal Name: Current Gene Therapy

Author(s): Chaitra Venugopal, Shobha K, Kiranmai S. Rai, Venkata Bharatkumar Pinnelli,Bindu M. Kutty, nandh Dhanushkodi*.

Abstract:

Introduction: Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) therapy in recent years has gained significant attention. Though the functional outcomes following MSC therapy for neurodegenerative diseases are convincing, various mechanisms for the functional recovery are being debated. Nevertheless, recent studies convincingly demonstrated that recovery following MSC therapy could be reiterated with MSC secretome per se thereby shifting the dogma from cell therapy to cell “based” therapy. In addition to various functional proteins, stem cell secretome also includes extracellular membrane vesicles like exosomes. Exosomes which are of “Nano” size have attracted significant interest as they can pass through the bloodbrain barrier far easily than macro size cells or growth factors. Exosomes act as a cargo between cells to bring about significant alterations in target cells. As the importance of exosomes is getting unveil, it is imperial to carry out a comprehensive study to evaluate the neuroprotective potential of exosomes as compared to conventional co-culture or total condition medium treatments.

Objective: Thus, the present study is designed to compare the neuroprotective potential of MSC derived exosomes with MSC-condition medium or neuron–MSC-co-culture system against kainic acid induced excitotoxicity in in vitro condition. The study also aims at comparing the neuroprotective efficacy of exosomes/condition medium/co-culture of two MSC viz., neural crest derived human Dental Pulp Stem Cells (hDPSC) and human Bone-Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hBM-MSC) to identify the appropriate MSC source for treating neurodegenerative diseases.

Result: Our results demonstrated that neuroprotective efficacy of MSC-exosomes is as efficient as MSC-condition medium or neuron-MSC co-culture system and treating degenerating hippocampal neurons with all three MSC based approaches could up-regulate host’s endogenous growth factor expressions and prevent apoptosis by activating cell survival PI3K-B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) pathway.

Conclusion: Thus, the current study highlights the possibilities of treating neurodegenerative diseases with “Nano” size exosomes as opposed to transplanting billions of stem cells which inherit several disadvantages.

 

For more details, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/165433/article

UPCOMING THEMATIC ISSUE – CELLS NAMED “MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS” – CURRENT STEM CELL RESEARCH & THERAPY

CGT-THEMATIC FLYER-Drenka Trivanovic

https://benthamscience.com/journals/current-stem-cell-research-and-therapy/special-issues/#top

Editor’s Choice – Mesenchymal Stem Cell-derived Extracellular Vesicles for Renal Repair – Current Gene Therapy

Journal: Current Gene Therapy

Author(s): Arash Aghajani Nargesi, Lilach O. Lerman, Alfonso Eirin.

Abstract:

Introduction: Transplantation of autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been shown to attenuate renal injury and dysfunction in several animal models, and its efficacy is currently being tested in clinical trials for patients with renal disease. Accumulating evidence indicates that MSCs release extracellular vesicles (EVs) that deliver genes, microRNAs and proteins to recipient cells, acting as mediators of MSC paracrine actions. In this context, it is critical to characterize the MSC-derived EV cargo to elucidate their potential contribution to renal repair. In recent years, researchers have performed high-throughput sequencing and proteomic analysis to detect and identify genes, microRNAs, and proteins enriched in MSC-derived EVs.

Conclusion: The present review summarizes the current knowledge of the MSC-derived EV secretome to shed light into the mechanisms mediating MSC renal repair, and discusses preclinical and clinical studies testing the efficacy of MSC-derived EVs for treating renal disease.

Highlighted Article Flyer for the journal “Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy”

CSCRT-Articles-12 -8-2017-Guanbin Song.jpg

http://www.eurekaselect.com/152039/article

Contributions by Japanese Authors in Bentham Science Journal ‘Current Gene Therapy’

Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Gene Therapy Protects Against Irradiation- Induced Intestinal Injury

Author(s): Chao Yang, Hai-Xu Chen, Yong Zhou, Min-Xia Liu, Yan Wang, Jie-Xi Wang, Su-Ping Ren, Ying Han and Ben-Yan Wu
japaja
Affiliation: Beijing Institute of Transfusion Medicine, Beijing 100850, China.

Abstract: Radiation-induced intestinal injury is a common complication in radiotherapy for solid organ malignancies in abdomen or pelvis. However, currently there are no approved medical countermeasures for radiation-induced intestinal injury. Therefore, it is urgent to develop new treatments for radiation-induced intestinal injury. In the present study, we demonstrated that bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and overexpression of human manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) could ameliorate radiation-induced intestinal syndrome.

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Current Gene Therapy is a bi-monthly peer-reviewed journal aimed at academic and industrial scientists with an interest in major topics concerning basic research and clinical applications of gene and cell therapy of genetic diseases. Cell therapy manuscripts can also include application in non-genetic diseases when cells have been genetically modified. Current Gene Therapy publishes reviews and original research on the latest developments in gene transfer and gene expression analysis, vector development, cellular genetic engineering, animal models and human clinical applications of gene and cell therapy for the treatment of genetic diseases.

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