Animated Abstract | Hematopoietic Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells: HOX and GATA Transcription Factors as Master Regulators

Journal Name: Current Genomics

Author(s): Khaled Alsayegh, Lorena V. Cortés-Medina, Gerardo Ramos-Mandujano, Heba Badraiq, Mo Li*




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Animated Abstract:




Numerous human disorders of the blood system would directly or indirectly benefit from therapeutic approaches that reconstitute the hematopoietic system. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), either from matched donors or ex vivo manipulated autologous tissues, are the most used cellular source of cell therapy for a wide range of disorders. Due to the scarcity of matched donors and the difficulty of ex vivo expansion of HSCs, there is a growing interest in harnessing the potential of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) as a de novo source of HSCs. PSCs make an ideal source of cells for regenerative medicine in general and for treating blood disorders in particular because they could expand indefinitely in culture and differentiate to any cell type in the body. However, advancement in deriving functional HSCs from PSCs has been slow. This is partly due to an incomplete understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying normal hematopoiesis. In this review, we discuss the latest efforts to generate human PSC (hPSC)-derived HSCs capable of long-term engraftment. We review the regulation of the key transcription factors (TFs) in hematopoiesis and hematopoietic differentiation, the Homeobox (HOX) and GATA genes, and the interplay between them and microRNAs. We also propose that precise control of these master regulators during the course of hematopoietic differentiation is key to achieving functional hPSC-derived HSCs. To know more about our Animated Abstract, please visit:

New Issue | MicroRNA; Volume 9 Issue 1




MicroRNA publishes letters, full-length/ mini reviews, research articles, drug clinical trial studies and thematic issues on all aspects of microRNA (miRNA) research. The scope of the journal covers all experimental miRNA research and applied research in health and disease, including therapeutic, biomarkers, and diagnostic applications of MiRNA.


Articles from the journal: MicroRNA; Volume 9 Issue 1

For details on the articles, please visit this link:

Wishing you a very Happy Birthday | Dr. Alberto Izzotti

Dr. Alberto Izzotti serves as the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal MicroRNA


Dr. Alberto

Alberto Izzotti
University of Genoa

Press Release | Making blood on demand: How far have we come?


News Release-2020.jpg


The article by Dr. Mo Li et al. is published in Current Genomics, 2019


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New Issue :: MicroRNA (Volume: 7, Issue: 3)


MicroRNA publishes letters, full-length research, review articles, drug clinical trial studies and thematic issues on all aspects of microRNA (miRNA) research. The scope of the journal covers all experimental miRNA research and applied research in health and disease, including therapeutic, biomarkers, and diagnostic applications of MiRNA.




Articles from the journal MicroRNA Volume 7, Issue 3:


For details on the articles, please visit this link ::

MOST ACCESSED ARTICLE – Cytochrome P450 Structure, Function and Clinical Significance: A Review


Author(s): Palrasu Manikandan, Siddavaram Nagini*.


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Background: The cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are membrane-bound hemoproteins that play a pivotal role in the detoxification of xenobiotics, cellular metabolism and homeostasis. Induction or inhibition of CYP enzymes is a major mechanism that underlies drug-drug interactions. CYP enzymes can be transcriptionally activated by various xenobiotics and endogenous substrates through receptor-dependent mechanisms. CYP enzyme inhibition is a principal mechanism for metabolism- based drug-drug interactions. Many chemotherapeutic drugs can cause drug interactions due to their ability to either inhibit or induce the CYP enzyme system. Predictions based on in silico analyses followed by validation have identified several microRNAs that regulate CYPs. Genetic polymorphisms and epigenetic changes in CYP genes may be responsible for inter-individual and interethnic variations in disease susceptibility and the therapeutic efficacy of drugs.

Objective: The present review is a comprehensive compilation of cytochrome P450 structure, function, pharmacogenetics, pharmacoepigenetics and clinical significance.

Conclusion: Knowledge about the substrates, inducers, and inhibitors of CYP isoforms, as well as the polymorphisms of CYP enzymes may be used as an aid by clinicians to determine therapeutic strategy, and treatment doses for drugs that are metabolized by CYP gene products.


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MOST ACCESSED ARTICLE – The Challenge of microRNA as a Biomarker of Epilepsy

Journal Name: Current Neuropharmacology

Author(s): Yihong Ma *.


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Background: Epilepsy is one of chronic severe neurological disorders possess to recurring seizures. And now anti-epileptic drugs are only effective in less than one third of epilepsy patients, and biomarkers predicting are not available when the specific antiepileptic drugs treated. Advanced studies have showed that miRNA may be a key in the pathogenesis of epilepsy beginning in the early 2000 years. Several target genes and pathways of miRNA which related to the therapeutic methods to epilepsy.

Method: We searched PubMed from Jan 1,2000 to Jan 1, 2017, using the terms “epilepsy AND microRNA AND biomarker” and “seizure AND microRNA AND biomarker”. We selected articles that featured novel miRNAs in vivo epilepsy models and patients. We then selected the most relevant articles based on a subjective appraisal of their quality and mechanistic insight that could be relevant to epilepsy.

Results: Decrease the expression of has-miR134 could be a potential non-invasive biomarker to use in diagnosis for the epilepsy patients for using hsa-miR-134 also be identified to distinguish patients with and without epilepsy. miR-181a show significant downregulation in the acute stage, but up regulation in the chronic stage and in the latent stage there is no changing and how about this phenomenon appearance in different stage still should be discussed in the future. Besides that, miR- 146a can down-regulated in the patients using genome-wide for serum in circulating miRNAs.miR- 124, miR-199a, and miR-128 etc. could be a candidate for the biomarker in future. miR-15a-5p and -194-5p down-regulated in epilepsy patients, in the future, it may be used as a novel biomarker for improve diagnosis.

Conclusion: These observations give a chance that new development for diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy patients. Advanced technique and miRNA combination may product more effective roles in epilepsy and other disease. These reports will be available to solve the application of miRNAs as biomarkers and novel therapy approaches for epilepsy. In summary, researcher who focus on miRNAs should be understanding of the causes, treatment, and diagnosis of epilepsy. exploration of any of these effects on the efficacy of these drugs is worthwhile.


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EDITOR’S CHOICE – Regulation of the Unfolded Protein Response in Disease

Journal: Current Immunology Reviews

Author(s): Samuel Lara-Reyna, Thomas Scambler, Jonathan Holbrook, Heledd H. Jarosz-Griffiths, Daniel Peckham, Michael F. McDermott

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Background: The Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) is a well conserved mechanism that mammalian cells use to cope with stress and infections. This mechanism is exquisitely regulated at several levels, including post-transcriptional modifications by microRNAs. These small non-coding RNAs are mainly involved in the degradation of mRNA, thereby blocking protein translation. The finely balanced interplay between the UPR and microRNAs is altered in several disorders, contributing to both disease aetiology and pathology.

Methods: We review and explore alterations in the UPR and microRNAs in several inflammatory conditions, including bone, lung, and neurodegenerative diseases. We also evaluate the impact of these alterations on the disruption of cellular homeostasis and suggest possible therapeutic options to restore this balance.

Results: Several components of the UPR, including IRE1, ATF6, and PERK, are clearly dysregulated in inflammatory bone, lung, and neurodegenerative diseases, contributing to the inflammatory process in these disorders. XBP1s, which is downstream of IRE1, is shown to be dysregulated in several diseases, and significantly contributes to the inflammatory process. MicroRNAs show unique dysregulated signatures in each individual tissue and disorder, suggesting that these small transcripts may regulate different pathways in a cell-dependent manner. Finally, there are functional connections between these dysregulated microRNAs and the UPR, which may underlie important pathological aspects of these disorders.

Conclusion: It is evident that microRNAs regulate several components of the UPR and that these small non-coding RNAs, or other molecules that restore the UPR balance, may represent possible therapeutic options to normalise intracellular homeostasis.

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EDITOR’S CHOICE – Exploring Mechanisms of MicroRNA Downregulation in Cancer – MicroRNA

Journal: MicroRNA

Author(s): Marissa Williams, Yuen Y. Cheng, Cherie Blenkiron, Glen Reid*

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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at a posttranscriptional level. Each miRNA controls the expression of multiple messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and their dysregulation has been implicated in multiple cancer phenotypes. While some miRNAs are upregulated, global downregulation of miRNA expression is often the rule in cancer. A multitude of potential mechanisms drive aberrant miRNA expression in cancer; miRNA coding regions can harbour genomic defects including mutations, amplifications or deletions, and some miRNAs are broadly repressed by transcription factors such as Myc or have epigenetic modifications to their promoter regions such as hypermethylation of CpG islands. Additionally, the suppression of components of the miRNA processing machinery has been shown to reduce mature miRNA expression and contribute to the malignant phenotype. Understanding the mechanisms driving miRNA downregulation is important in uncovering the critical and complex role of miRNAs in cancer biology. This review will outline the multiple mechanisms by which cancer cells suppress miRNA expression.

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EDITOR’S CHOICE – Environment and Neurodegenerative Diseases – MicroRNA

Journal: MicroRNA 

Author(s): Margherita Ferrante*, Gea Oliveri Conti

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Introduction: The importance of neurodegenerative diseases on the management of public health is growing and the real role of the environment and miRNA in their occurrence is still unclear. miRNA can significantly affect the regulatory network. The complex variety and gene-regulatory capacity of miRNAs are particularly valuable in the brain, being a very complex organ with a functional specialization of neurons highly adaptable to environmental stimuli. In particular, an miRNAs role is demonstrated in neurological diseases as an effect to toxic and mutagenic substances exposure by the environment.

Objective: The focus was on the three most important neurodegenerative diseases: Alzheimer, Parkinson and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Materials and Methods: A brief critical review on scientific papers of the last ten years using PuBMED, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane databases was carried out.

Results: Several studies have shown that miRNAs may contribute to neurodegeneration process in response to environmental risks. The miRNAs are known to play a dynamic role in many biochemical pathways of mammalian’s brain, including neuroplasticity, stress responses, cellular signaling, etc. miRNAs have a role in neurodegenerative phenotype of AD, PD and ALS.

The environmental chemicals such as metals and pesticides and then behavior can cause miRNA alterations via increasing oxidative stress and/or triggering inflammatory responses.

Conclusion: A discussion with theoretical and possible future research directions is provided and it is clear that the need is not only of longitudinal population studies and of better knowledge of epigenetics markers but, especially, of environmental policy interventions based on the green economy.


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