MicroRNA publishes letters, full-length/ mini reviews, research articles, drug clinical trial studies and thematic issues on all aspects of microRNA (miRNA) research. The scope of the journal covers all experimental miRNA research and applied research in health and disease, including therapeutic, biomarkers, and diagnostic applications of MiRNA.
Articles from the journal: MicroRNA; Volume 9 Issue 1
Author(s): Meiqi Wu, Yingxi Yang, Hui Wang, Jun Ding, Huan Zhu, Yan Xu*.
Background: With the rapid development of biological research, microRNAs (miRNAs) have increasingly attracted worldwide attention. The increasing biological studies and scientific experiments have proven that miRNAs are related to the occurrence and development of a large number of key biological processes which cause complex human diseases. Thus, identifying the association between miRNAs and disease is helpful to diagnose the diseases. Although some studies have found considerable associations between miRNAs and diseases, there are still a lot of associations that need to be identified. Experimental methods to uncover miRNA-disease associations are time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, effective computational methods are urgently needed to predict new associations.
Methodology: In this work, we propose an integrated method for predicting potential associations between miRNAs and diseases (IMPMD). The enhanced similarity for miRNAs is obtained by combination of functional similarity, gaussian similarity and Jaccard similarity. To diseases, it is obtained by combination of semantic similarity, gaussian similarity and Jaccard similarity. Then, we use these two enhanced similarities to construct the features and calculate cumulative score to choose robust features. Finally, the general linear regression is applied to assign weights for Support Vector Machine, K-Nearest Neighbor and Logistic Regression algorithms.
Results: IMPMD obtains AUC of 0.9386 in 10-fold cross-validation, which is better than most of the previous models. To further evaluate our model, we implement IMPMD on two types of case studies for lung cancer and breast cancer. 49 (Lung Cancer) and 50 (Breast Cancer) out of the top 50 related miRNAs are validated by experimental discoveries.
Conclusion: We built a software named IMPMD which can be freely downloaded from https:// github.com/Sunmile/IMPMD.
To read out more, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/176039/article
Author(s): Margherita Ferrante*, Gea Oliveri Conti
Introduction: The importance of neurodegenerative diseases on the management of public health is growing and the real role of the environment and miRNA in their occurrence is still unclear. miRNA can significantly affect the regulatory network. The complex variety and gene-regulatory capacity of miRNAs are particularly valuable in the brain, being a very complex organ with a functional specialization of neurons highly adaptable to environmental stimuli. In particular, an miRNAs role is demonstrated in neurological diseases as an effect to toxic and mutagenic substances exposure by the environment.
Objective: The focus was on the three most important neurodegenerative diseases: Alzheimer, Parkinson and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Materials and Methods: A brief critical review on scientific papers of the last ten years using PuBMED, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane databases was carried out.
Results: Several studies have shown that miRNAs may contribute to neurodegeneration process in response to environmental risks. The miRNAs are known to play a dynamic role in many biochemical pathways of mammalian’s brain, including neuroplasticity, stress responses, cellular signaling, etc. miRNAs have a role in neurodegenerative phenotype of AD, PD and ALS.
The environmental chemicals such as metals and pesticides and then behavior can cause miRNA alterations via increasing oxidative stress and/or triggering inflammatory responses.
Conclusion: A discussion with theoretical and possible future research directions is provided and it is clear that the need is not only of longitudinal population studies and of better knowledge of epigenetics markers but, especially, of environmental policy interventions based on the green economy.
Read more here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/154912
Journal: Recent Patents on Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery
Author(s): Francisco E. Nicolas.
Background: Since the first reports of microRNAs and the advent of new sequencing technologies, a whole new world of regulatory non-conding RNAs (ncRNAs) has revolutionized our knowledge of the RNA dimension. Thousands of functional non-coding transcripts have been identified and grouped into new classes of ncRNAs attending to their origin and function. Despite the fact that we have just started to study ncRNAs, it is now clear that these new regulatory actors play an important role in most of the regulated biological processes and in almost all species.
Objective: An overview of the state of the art in ncRNAs and the development, diagnosis and treatment of human cancer.Method: NcRNAs are deeply involved in the regulation of key genes that are associated with human cancer, representing a promising field for new therapies. This review summarizes the origin, structure and function of the most relevant new classes of ncRNAs, playing special attention to the studies that have related these new regulatory factors with the development of human cancer.
Results: From a thorough literature review on scientific publications and patented applications, this review presents recent advances related to ncRNAs and human cancer. In addition, a selection of patents that use ncRNAs to develop new methodologies for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer is included and described in each class of ncRNAs.
Conclusion: The regulatory potential of ncRNAs opens a new research field that will uncover new and promising aspects in the study of human cancer.