Journal Name: Current Medical Imaging
Formerly: Current Medical Imaging Reviews
Aim: The aim of our study was to determine whether the diffusion properties of the auditory pathways alter between patients with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and the healthy subjects. DTI can well demonstrate FA and ADC changes in auditory tracts and it may be a guide to identify the candidates for hearing loss among NF1 children.
Methods: The study population consisted of 43 patients with NF1 and 21 healthy controls. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to measure apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values from lemniscus lateralis, colliculus inferior, corpus geniculatum mediale and Heschl’s gyrus. The results were compared with those of the control group.
Results: The ADC values of lateral lemniscus, colliculus inferior and corpus geniculatum mediale were significantly higher in NF1 compared to those of the control group. On the other hand, decreased FA values were observed in lateral lemniscus and colliculus inferior in patients with NF1.
Conclusion: The increase in ADC and reduction in FA in the auditory pathways of patients with NF1 may suggest microstructural alterations, such as a decrease in the number of axons, edema or inflammation in the auditory tracts. To read out more, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/161550/article
Author(s): David M. Rajathei*, Subbiah Parthasarathy, Samuel Selvaraj.
Background: Vortioxetine is a multimodal antidepressant drug with combined effects on SERT as an inhibitor, 5-HT1A as agonist and 5-HT3A as an antagonist. Series of vortioxetine analogs have been reported as multi antidepressant compounds and they block serotonin transport into the neuronal cells, activate the postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors and eliminate the low activity of 5-HT3A receptors.
Objective: To explore the important properties of vortioxetine analogs involved in antidepressant activity by developing 2D QSAR models.
Methods: Selections of significant descriptors were performed by Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) method and, the Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) method and All Subsets and GA algorithm included in QSARINS software were used for generating QSAR models. Further, the virtual screening was performed based on bioactivity and structure similarity using the PubChem database.
Results: The four descriptor model of complementary information content (CIC2), solubility (bcutp3), mass (bcutm8) and partial charge in van der Waals surface area (PEOEVSA7) of the molecules is obtained for SERT inhibition with the significant statistics of R2= 0.69, RMSEtr= 0.44, R2 ext= 0.62 and CCCext= 0.78. For 5-HT1A agonist, the two descriptor model of molecular shape (Kappm3) and van der Waals volume of the atoms (bcutv11) with R2= 0.78, RMSEtr= 0.33, R2 ext = 0.83, and CCCext= 0.87 is established. The three descriptor model of information content (IC3), solubility (bcutp9) and electronegativity (GATSe5) of the molecules with R2= 0.61, RMSEtr= 0.34, R2 ext= 0.69 and CCCext= 0.72 is obtained for 5-HT3A antagonist. The antidepressant activities of 16 virtual screened compounds were predicted using the developed models.
Conclusion: The developed QSAR models may be useful to predict antidepressant activity for the newly synthesized vortioxetine analogs. To read out more, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/166166/article
Author(s): Iane Pereira Pimenta, Fariza Abrão, Jonas Joaquim Mangabeira da Silva, Larissa Costa Oliveira, Hervé Louis Ghislain Rogez, Sérgio Ricardo Ambrósio, Rodrigo Cássio Sola Veneziani, Jairo Kenupp Bastos, Carlos Henrique Gomes Martins*.
Background: Copaifera multijuga are widely used as medicinal plants in Brazil. Of the various ethnopharmacological indications of copaiba oleoresins, the antimicrobial activity had been highlighted.
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the oleoresin and the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves from Copaifera multijuga against oral pathogens in the sessile and in the planktonic modes.
Methods: Standard strains from the American Type Culture Collection and clinical isolates which cause both cariogenic and endodontic infections were used. Was evaluated in terms of its Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values by the broth microdilution method in 96-well microplates, Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) and biofilm eradication assay.
Results: The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) assays showed that the oleoresin was effective against some the bacterial strains. Assessment of the antibiofilm activity of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves from C. multijuga against the evaluated microaerophilic bacteria in the sessile mode gave IC50 values of 318.0 and 695.6 µg/mL against S. mitis (ATCC 49456) and A. actinomycetemcomintans (ATCC 43717), respectively. As for the assayed anaerobic bacteria, the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves gave IC50 of 4554.0, 2218.0, and 600.1 µg/mL against F. nucleatum (Clinical isolate), P. gingivalis (ATCC 33277), and P. micros (Clinical isolate), respectively, whereas the oleoresin afforded IC50 of 357.1 µg/mL against P. gingivalis (ATCC 33277).
Conclusion: The oleoresin and hydroalcoholic extract of leaves displayed satisfactory activity against the main oral pathogens in both sessile and planktonic modes. The oleoresin and hydroalcoholic extracts of leaves from C. multijuga are potential candidates for the development of new products for dental and oral care. To read out more, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/163330/article
Author(s): Suresh Chandra Satapathy*, Steven Lawrence Fernandes, Hong Lin.
Background: Stroke is one of the major causes for the momentary/permanent disability in the human community. Usually, stroke will originate in the brain section because of the neurological deficit and this kind of brain abnormality can be predicted by scrutinizing the periphery of brain region. Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) is the extensively considered imaging procedure to record the interior sections of the brain to support visual inspection process.
Objective: In the proposed work, a semi-automated examination procedure is proposed to inspect the province and the severity of the stroke lesion using the MRI.
Method: Recently discovered heuristic approach called the Social Group Optimization (SGO) algorithm is considered to pre-process the test image based on a chosen image multi-thresholding procedure. Later, a chosen segmentation procedure is considered in the post-processing section to mine the stroke lesion from the pre-processed image.
Results: In this paper, the pre-processing work is executed with the well known thresholding approaches, such as Shannon’s entropy, Kapur’s entropy and Otsu’s function. Similarly, the postprocessing task is executed using most successful procedures, such as level set, active contour and watershed algorithm.
Conclusion: The proposed procedure is experimentally inspected using the benchmark brain stroke database known as Ischemic Stroke Lesion Segmentation (ISLES 2015) challenge database. The results of this experimental work authenticates that, Shannon’s approach along with the LS segmentation offers superior average values compared with the other approaches considered in this research work. To read out more, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/168477
Background: There have been numerous experiments and studies on liver cancer by biomedical scientists, while no comprehensive and systematic exploration has yet been conducted. Therefore, this study aimed to systematically dissect the transcriptional and non-coding RNAmediated mechanisms of liver cancer dysfunction.
Method: At first, we collected 974 liver cancer associated genes from the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM). Afterwards, their interactors were recruited from STRING database so as to identify 18 co-expression modules in liver cancer patient expression profile. Crosstalk analysis showed the interactive relationship between these modules. In addition, core drivers for modules were identified, including 111 transcription factors (STAT3, JUN and NFKB1, etc.) and 1492 ncRNAs (FENDRR and miR-340-5p, etc.) Read out full article here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/167479