The effectiveness, cell viability, and selective delivery of medications and diagnostic substances to target organs, tissues, and organs are typical concerns in the care and prognosis of many illnesses. Neurological diseases pose complex challenges, as cerebral targeting represents a yet unresolved challenge in pharmacotherapy, owing to the blood-brain boundary, a densely compacted membrane of endothelial cells that prohibits undesired chemicals from reaching the brain. Engineered nanoparticles, with dimensions ranging from 1 to 100 nm, provide intriguing biomedical techniques that may allow for resolving these issues, including the ability to cross the bloodbrain barrier. It has substantially explored nanoparticles in the previous century, contributing to substantial progress in biomedical studies and medical procedures. Using many synthesized nanoparticles on the molecular level has given many potential gains in various domains of regenerative medicine, such as illness detection, cascaded cell treatment, tissue regeneration, medication, and gene editing. This review will encapsulate the novel developments of nanostructured components used in neurological diseases with an emphasis on the most recent discoveries and forecasts for the future of varied biological nanoparticles for tissue repair, drug inventions, and the synthesizing of the delivery mechanism.
Nanoscience & Nanotechnology-Asia publishes expert reviews/ mini reviews, original research articles, letters and guest edited issues on all the most recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology with an emphasis on research in Asia and Japan. All aspects of the field are represented including chemistry, physics, materials science, biology and engineering mainly covering the following; synthesis, characterization, assembly, theory, and simulation of nanostructures (nanomaterials and assemblies, nanodevices, nano-bubbles, nano-droplets, nanofluidics, and self-assembled structures), nanofabrication, nanobiotechnology, nanomedicine and methods and tools for nanoscience and nanotechnology.
The Journal offers thorough and authoritative reviews, perspectives on cutting-edge research and discussions of topics that provide distinctive views about the future of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Read now: https://bit.ly/3QAfOr0
Author(s): Jobin Jose, Aaron Mathew Thomas, Darewin Mendonsa, Mohammad M. Al-Sanea, Md. Sahab Uddin, Della Grace Thomas Parambi, R Narayana Charyulu, Bijo Mathew*
Implementation of novel and biocompatible polymers in drug design is an emerging and rapidly growing area of research. Even though we have a large number of polymer materials for various applications, the biocompatibility of these materials remains as a herculean task for researchers. Aptamers provide a vital and efficient solution to this problem. They are usually small (ranging from 20 to 60 nucleotides, single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides which are capable of binding to molecules possessing high affinity and other properties like specificity. This review focuses on different aspects of Aptamers in drug discovery, starting from its preparation methods and covering the recent scenario reported in the literature regarding their use in drug discovery. We address the limitations of Aptamers and provide valuable insights into their future potential in the areas regarding drug discovery research. Finally, we explained the major role of Aptamers like medical imaging techniques, application as synthetic antibodies, and the most recent application, which is in combination with nanomedicines.
Background: Nanotechnology has opened new windows for biomedical researches and treatment of diseases. Nanostructures with flower-like shapes (nanoflowers) which have exclusive morphology and properties have been interesting for many researchers.
Methods: In this review, various applications of nanoflowers in biomedical researches and patents from various aspects have been investigated and reviewed.
Results: Nanoflowers attracted serious attentions in whole biomedical fields such as cardiovascular diseases, microbiology, sensors and biosensors, biochemical and cellular studies, cancer therapy, healthcare, etc. The competitive power of nanoflowers against other in use technologies provides successful achievements in the progress of mentioned biomedical studies.
Conclusion: The use of nanoflowers in biomedicine leads to improving accuracy, reducing time to achieve the results, reducing costs, creating optimal treatment conditions as well as avoiding side effects of the treatment of specific diseases, and increasing functional strength.
Author(s): Amit A. Patel*, Ravish J. Patel*, Shachi R. Patel.
Intranasal drug delivery system provides distinct advantage over conventional drug delivery system for a drug that is pharmacokenetically or biologically unstable. Major concern for the treatment of central nervous system diseases is, low concentration of therapeutically active molecule within brain as blood brain barrier is creating obstacle, where intranasal drug delivery provides direct transport of therapeutically active moiety into brain via olfactory or trigeminal pathway. Nasal mucosa provides distinct advantages like improved bioavailability, law dose and quick onset of action and high patient compliance, and the major disadvantage is residence time of drug and irreversible entrapment of drug. This article provides anatomical and physiological information about nasal route and various factors. Article discusses various types of nanoparticles used intranasally and moreover article also emphasizes patents, formulation under development and some.
Background: The success story of liposomes in the treatment of systemic infectious diseases and various carcinomas lead the scientists to the innovation of elastic vesicles to achieve similar success through transdermal route. In this direction, ethosomes and transfersomes were developed with the objective to design the vesicles that could pass through the skin. However, there is a lack of systematic review outlining the principles, method of preparation, latest advancement and applications of ethosomes and transfersomes. This review covers various aspects that would be helpful to scientists in understanding advantages of these vesicular systems and designing a unique nano vesicular delivery system.
Methods: Structured search of bibliographic databases for previously published peer-reviewed research papers was explored and data was culminated in terms of principle of these vesicular delivery systems, composition, mechanism of actions, preparation techniques, methods for their characterization and their application.
Results: A total of 182 papers including both, research and review articles, were included in this review in order to make the article comprehensive and readily understandable. The mechanism of action and composition of ethosomes and transfersomes was extensively discussed. Various methods of preparation such as, rotary film evaporation method, reverse phase evaporation method, vortex/ sonication method, ethanol injection method, freeze thaw methods, along with their advantages has been discussed. It was also discussed that both these elastic nanocarriers offer unique advantages of ferrying the drug across membranes, sustaining drug release as well as protecting the encapsulated bio actives from external environment. The enhanced bioavailability and skin penetration of ethosomes as compared to conventional vesicular delivery systems is attributed to the presence of ethanol in the bilayers while that for transfersomes accrues due to their elasticity along with their ability to retain their shape because of the presence of edge activators. Successful delivery of synthetic drugs as well as phytomedicines has been extensively reported through these vesicles.
Conclusion: Though these vesicular systems offer a good potential for rational drug delivery, a thoughtfully designed process is required to optimize the process variables involved. Industrial scale production of efficacious, safe, cost effective and stable formulations of both these delivery systems appears to be a pre-requisite to ensure their utility as the trans-dermal vehicles.