Most cited article: Local Delivery of Metronidazole-loaded N-Trimethyl Quaternary Ammonium Chitosan Nanoparticles for Periodontitis Treatment

Author(s):Kritika Garg*and Pravin Tirgar

Background: Recent findings suggest that chitosan has shown antibacterial activity acting through various mechanisms, but when the amine group in chitosan is converted to quaternary ammonium compound, the antibacterial activity of chitosan is elevated due to the increase in its solubility in an acidic environment.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to formulate and standardize metronidazole-loaded Ntrimethyl quaternary ammonium chitosan nanoparticles for the treatment of periodontitis.

Method: N-trimethyl quaternary ammonium chitosan derivative was synthesized, and nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by ionic gelation methodology followed by 32 full factorial designs. Particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index (PDI), surface morphology, thermal properties, in vitro drug release as well as antimicrobial activity, stability study, ex vivo, and acute toxicity of NPs were evaluated.

Results: The optimized batches of NPs were in the size range of 150 to 237 nm with a mean size of 117.01 ± 0.03 nm. Entrapment efficiency (EE) of 81.45 ± 0.03 % was obtained with a zeta potential (mV) of 28.19 ± 0.03 mV. Almost 98.97 ± 7.17% of the drug was released within 24 hours in vitro to obtain a sustained release drug; the optimized batches exhibited a smooth surface with appreciable in vitro, ex vivo antibacterial, and acute toxicity, and it was found that the formulation could be stored for up to 6 months.

Conclusion: The present study revealed that metronidazole-loaded N-trimethyl quaternary ammonium chitosan nanoparticles exhibit enhanced antibacterial activity against periodontal infections.

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Nanomedicine in Neuroscience: An Application Towards the Treatment of Various Neurological Diseases

Author(s):Vajagathali MohammedIyshwarya Bhaskar Kalarani and Ramakrishnan Veerabathiran*

The effectiveness, cell viability, and selective delivery of medications and diagnostic substances to target organs, tissues, and organs are typical concerns in the care and prognosis of many illnesses. Neurological diseases pose complex challenges, as cerebral targeting represents a yet unresolved challenge in pharmacotherapy, owing to the blood-brain boundary, a densely compacted membrane of endothelial cells that prohibits undesired chemicals from reaching the brain. Engineered nanoparticles, with dimensions ranging from 1 to 100 nm, provide intriguing biomedical techniques that may allow for resolving these issues, including the ability to cross the bloodbrain barrier. It has substantially explored nanoparticles in the previous century, contributing to substantial progress in biomedical studies and medical procedures. Using many synthesized nanoparticles on the molecular level has given many potential gains in various domains of regenerative medicine, such as illness detection, cascaded cell treatment, tissue regeneration, medication, and gene editing. This review will encapsulate the novel developments of nanostructured components used in neurological diseases with an emphasis on the most recent discoveries and forecasts for the future of varied biological nanoparticles for tissue repair, drug inventions, and the synthesizing of the delivery mechanism.

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Most Cited Article – Transungual Drug Delivery System for the Topical Treatment of Onychomycosis: A Review

Author(s):Yashwant GiriAmulyaratna BeheraBiswaranjan Mohanty*Gurudutta Pattnaik and S.K. Habibullah

Volume 12, Issue 1, 2022

Published on: 18 March, 2022

Page: [2 – 18]

Pages: 17

DOI: 10.2174/2210303112666220224110100


Onychomycosis is an infection caused by a fungus that causes discoloration and thickening of the nail layer, and it is the most common nail infection in the world. Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigital is the most common anthropophilic dermatophytes that trigger it. Onychomycosis is caused by yeasts such as Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis, as well as moulds such as Aspergillus spp. Treatment is determined by the type of nail invasion, the fungus genus, and the number of nails affected. Approaches towards conventional methods showed certain drawbacks, which emphasizes the need for alternate approaches to produce better therapeutic efficacy of a product. The present review focused on reporting an updated classification of Onchyomycosis, causative organisms, factors influencing drug permeation, novel treatment strategies for Onychomycosis, and drug permeation enhancement methods. Read now:

Editors Choice – Nano Technological Approaches for Anti-tumour Therapy: Opportunities and Challenges

Author(s):Krishna Champaneria* and Prajesh Prajapati

Volume 11, Issue 1, 2021

Published on: 13 February, 2020

Page: [1 – 13]

Pages: 13

DOI: 10.2174/2210681210666200213121156


Cancer is a leading cause of mortality, and its individual and collective impact is substantial. Conventional chemotherapy utilizes drugs that effectively destroy tumour cells. However, these agents destroy healthy cells along with the tumour cells, leading to many adverse effects, which include hypersensitivity reactions, nephrotoxicity, and neurotoxicity. To minimize these adverse effects, various drug delivery systems (DDSs) have been developed. Among them, nano drug delivery systems are particularly attractive platform. Thus, this review paper explores recent work on targeted delivery; tumour accumulation enhancement and sustained blood circulation using more effective biomaterials to enhance the properties of nanoparticles. Moreover, various target-specific drug delivery mechanisms, such as antibody-mediated delivery as well as the targeting of angiogenesis, mitochondria, and the CD44 receptor, are also explained. Read now:

Editors Choice – Evaluation of Brain Targeting Potential of Zolmitriptan Mucoadhesive Nanoparticles for Intranasal Drug Delivery

Author(s):Sunena Jha* and Dinanath Mishra

Volume 10, Issue 2, 2022

Published on: 22 April, 2022

Page: [113 – 124]

Pages: 12

DOI: 10.2174/2211738510666220303160414


Background: Hydrophilic drugs are poor applicants for brain targeting via oral route due to the presence of a blood-brain barrier that allows only small lipophilic molecules to freely access the brain. Due to unique anatomical connections between the nasal cavity and the brain, intranasal administration can be explored for drug delivery to the brain directly that circumvents the blood-brain barrier too.

Objectives: Zolmitriptan is a widely used antimigraine drug, and its brain targeting by nasal route in the form of mucoadhesive nanoparticles is more effective in migraine treatment as it provides fast relief and good bioavailability as compared to its oral drug delivery. In the present study, zolmitriptan mucoadhesive nanoparticles were prepared to improve the bioavailability and brain targeting for the better management of Migraine attacks.

Methods: The mucoadhesive polymeric nanoparticles of zolmitriptan were formulated by a modified ionic gelation method using thiolated chitosan. The pharmacokinetic parameters were counted in male Wistar rats by intranasal and oral delivery of the anti-migraine drug zolmitriptan and compared statistically. The concentration of zolmitriptan in the blood plasma and brain samples was determined by using the liquid-liquid extraction method followed by a reversed-phase highperformance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analysis. The pharmacodynamic analysis was conducted in adult male Swiss albino mice by behavioral models, a light/dark box model, and acetic acid-induced writhing (abdominal stretching or constriction). These tests were used to reproduce the important associated symptoms of migraine viz. hyperalgesia (nociceptive sensitization) and photophobia to assess the therapeutic potential of intranasal delivery of nanoparticles antimigraine activity.

Results: The absolute bioavailability accessed for Zolmitriptan nanoparticles by IN route was found to be very high (193%), suggesting that the sufficient amount of drug transported by nanoparticles and DTE ratio was calculated as 2.8. Moreover, it revealed better nose-to-brain transport by zolmitriptan nanoparticles as compared to oral delivery in male Wistar rats. A significant increase in the tolerance capacity of animals to bright light and a fall in the number of stretching in mice suggested the better management of migraine-associated symptoms by the zolmitriptan nanoparticles.

Conclusion: Thus, the present study confers the significance of nasal drug delivery for brain targeting of zolmitriptan nanoparticles for the treatment of migraine. Read now:

Most Cited Article – Theranostic Applications of Stimulus-Responsive Systems based on Fe2O3

Author(s):Mehrab PourmadadiMohammad Javad AhmadiHomayoon Soleimani DinaniNarges Ajalli and Farid Dorkoosh*

Volume 10, Issue 2, 2022

Published on: 21 April, 2022

Page: [90 – 112]

Pages: 23

DOI: 10.2174/2211738510666220210105113


According to the interaction of nanoparticles with biological systems, enthusiasm for nanotechnology in biomedical applications has been developed in the past decades. Fe2O3 nanoparticles, as the most stable iron oxide, have special merits that make them useful widely for detecting diseases, therapy, drug delivery, and monitoring the therapeutic process. This review presents the fabrication methods of Fe2O3-based materials and their photocatalytic and magnetic properties. Then, we highlight the application of Fe2O3-based nanoparticles in diagnosis and imaging, different therapy methods, and finally, stimulus-responsive systems, such as pH-responsive, magneticresponsive, redox-responsive, and enzyme-responsive, with an emphasis on cancer treatment. In addition, the potential of Fe2O3 to combine diagnosis and therapy within a single particle called theranostic agent will be discussed. Read now:

Open Access Article – Systematic Patent Review of Nanoparticles in Drug Delivery and Cancer Therapy in the Last Decade

Author(s):Nur Umairah Ali HazisNagender AnejaRajan Rajabalaya and Sheba Rani David*

Volume 15, Issue 1, 2021

Published on: 24 September, 2021

Page: [59 – 74]

Pages: 16

DOI: 10.2174/1872211314666210521105534


Background: The application of nanotechnology has been considered a powerful platform in improving the current situation in drug delivery and cancer therapy, especially in targeting the desired site of action.

Objective: The main objective of the patent review is to survey and review patents from the past ten years that are related to the two particular areas of nanomedicines.

Methods: The patents related to the nanoparticle-based inventions utilized in drug delivery and cancer treatment from 2010 onwards were browsed in databases like USPTO, WIPO, Google Patents, and Free Patents Online. After conducting numerous screening processes, a total of 40 patents were included in the patent analysis. See the PRISMA checklist 2020 checklist.

Results: Amongst the selected patents, an overview of various types of nanoparticles is presented in this paper, including polymeric, metallic, silica, lipid-based nanoparticles, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, and albumin-based nanomedicines.

Conclusion: Nanomedicines’ advantages include improvements in terms of drug delivery, bioavailability, solubility, penetration, and stability of drugs. It is concluded that the utilization of nanoparticles in medicines is essential in the pursuit of better clinical practice. Read now:

Most Cited Article – Cosmeceutical Aptitudes of Niacinamide: A Review

Author(s):Piyush MadaanPriyanshi Sikka and Deepinder Singh Malik*

Volume 16, Issue 3, 2021

Published on: 16 December, 2021

Page: [196 – 208]Pages: 13

DOI: 10.2174/2772434416666211129105629


Background: The prevalence and scope of dermatological illness differ from region to region. Based upon type and severity, the conditions may vary from superficial to deep systemic skin infections. Niacinamide, an amide analog of vitamin B3 which was conventionally utilized as a food supplement, is now explored for the management of skin disorders. Being a powerhouse on its own, it is not stored inside the body naturally and has to be acquired from external sources.

Areas Covered: This review is an attempt to disclose the physiology, pharmacology, and highlight the dermatological potentials of niacinamide, discussing its pharmacological mechanisms, varied commercially available treatments, and novel approaches, i.e., in research and patented formulations.

Results: Niacinamide has been verified in treating almost every skin disorder, viz. aging, hyperpigmentation, acne, psoriasis, pruritus, dermatitis, fungal infections, epidermal melasma, non-melanoma skin cancer, etc. It has been reported to possess numerous properties, for instance, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antipruritic, and anticancer, which makes it an ideal ingredient for varied dermal therapies. Long term use of niacinamide, regardless of the skin type, paves the way for new skin cells, making skin healthier, brighter, and hydrated.

Conclusion: Niacinamide possesses a variety of positive characteristics in the field of dermatology. Novel approaches are warranted over current treatments which could bypass the above shortcomings and form an effective and stable system. Hence, niacinamide has the potential to become an individual and a productive component with wide future scope. Read now:

Testimonial By Dr. Bo-Shen Gong

Read what our Authors have to say about publishing in our Journal

Bo shen-01.jpg

Journal Name: Current Cancer Drug Targets

Contributed Article: Nanotherapy Targeting the Tumor Microenvironment

Press Release | Current and Future Developments in Food Science: A new book series




Food science is a growing field; Bentham’s new series starts off with a volume about chemical testing in foods


Advances in the Determination of Xenobiotics in Foods is the first volume of the new book series, Current and Future Developments in Food Science. This inaugural volume explains recent developments in the field of xenobiotic determination in food. Readers are introduced to xenobiotic testing techniques through extensive reviews. Chapters also cover details about contaminants coming from food contact materials (such as plasticizers, food additives, polymer monomers/oligomers and non-intentionally added substances), substances used for food processing and sensing (nanoparticles), and residues of pesticides (that can also be present in the final food product). The book also includes information about specific xenobiotics that, due to their global distribution in the environment, are also likely to enter the food chain. Some of them are regulated (persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals) but there are many other types of contaminants (halogenated flame-retardants, perfluorinated compounds and micro- and nanoplastics) that must also be controlled. In addition, some xenobiotics could be present in the final food consumed because of food treatments (acrylamide, furan, heterocyclic aromatic amines, and glycidol esters). Finally, the concluding chapters of the book are devoted to the presence of natural contaminants such as mycotoxins and biogenic amines.

The combination of extensive information of analytical techniques for xenobiotics along with a categorical treatment of food contaminants makes this volume a useful reference for food science and technology students and technicians involved in food safety and processing management roles.

About The Editors:

Belen Gomara is a tenured scientist at the Department of Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry of the Institute of Organic Chemistry (IQOG) of the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) in Madrid (Spain). Her research career is focused in the areas of Analytical Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry and Food Safety. She is an expert on the development and validation of analytical methodologies for the determination of legislated and emerging-non-legislated persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Her current scientific activity also involves the development of methodologies for the determination of contaminants related to food packaging, such as phthalates and bisphenols.

Maria Luisa Marina is Full Professor of Analytical Chemistry at the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Alcalá (Madrid, Spain). Her research activity is focused on the development of innovative analytical methodologies using capillary chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques for the determination of compounds of interest in the pharmaceutical, environmental and food analysis (including the enantiomeric separation of chiral compounds, the search for biomarkers using metabolomics strategies and the determination of proteins, peptides and amino acids with important applications to the control of the quality and safety of foods and the revalorization of food residues).


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