Author(s): Nuwan Madusanka, Heung-Kook Choi*, Jae-Hong So, Boo-Kyeong Choi.
Journal Name: Current Medical Imaging
In this study, we investigated the fusion of texture and morphometric features as a possible diagnostic biomarker for Alzheimer’s Disease (AD).
In particular, we classified subjects with Alzheimer’s disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Normal Control (NC) based on texture and morphometric features. Currently, neuropsychiatric categorization provides the ground truth for AD and MCI diagnosis. This can then be supported by biological data such as the results of imaging studies. Cerebral atrophy has been shown to correlate strongly with cognitive symptoms. Hence, Magnetic Resonance (MR) images of the brain are important resources for AD diagnosis. In the proposed method, we used three different types of features identified from structural MR images: Gabor, hippocampus morphometric, and Two Dimensional (2D) and Three Dimensional (3D) Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM). The experimental results, obtained using a 5-fold cross-validated Support Vector Machine (SVM) with 2DGLCM and 3DGLCM multi-feature fusion approaches, indicate that we achieved 81.05% ±1.34, 86.61% ±1.25 correct classification rate with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) falls between (80.75-81.35) and (86.33-86.89) respectively, 83.33%±2.15, 84.21%±1.42 sensitivity and 80.95%±1.52, 85.00%±1.24 specificity in our classification of AD against NC subjects, thus outperforming recent works found in the literature. For the classification of MCI against AD, the SVM achieved a 76.31% ± 2.18, 78.95% ±2.26 correct classification rate, 75.00% ±1.34, 76.19%±1.84 sensitivity and 77.78% ±1.14, 82.35% ±1.34 specificity. Read out full article here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/166178
Author(s): Bo Wang , Xiao-Ping Wang*.
Ceruloplasmin (CP) is the major copper transport protein in plasma, mainly produced by the liver. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked CP (GPI-CP) is the predominant form expressed in astrocytes of the brain. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that CP is an essential protein in the body with multiple functions such as regulating the homeostasis of copper and iron ions, ferroxidase activity, oxidizing organic amines, and preventing the formation of free radicals. In addition, as an acute-phase protein, CP is induced during inflammation and infection. The fact that patients with genetic disorder aceruloplasminemia do not suffer from tissue copper deficiency, but rather from disruptions in iron metabolism shows essential roles of CP in iron metabolism rather than copper. Furthermore, abnormal metabolism of metal ions and oxidative stress are found in other neurodegenerative diseases, such as Wilson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Brain iron accumulation and decreased activity of CP have been shown to be associated with neurodegeneration. We hypothesize that CP may play a protective role in neurodegenerative diseases. However, whether iron accumulation is a cause or a result of neurodegeneration remains unclear. Further research on molecular mechanisms is required before a consensus can be reached regarding a neuroprotective role for CP in neurodegeneration. This review article summarizes the main physiological functions of CP and the current knowledge of its role in neurodegenerative diseases.
This article by Dr. Fabricio Ferreira de Oliveira et al. is published in Current Alzheimer Research, Volume 15, Issue 4, 2018
The angiotensin-converting enzyme is an amyloid-ß-degrading enzyme. While angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors could increase amyloid-ß accumulation, they might also slow cognitive decline by way of cholinergic effects, by increasing brain substance P and boosting the activity of neprilysin, and by modulating glucose homeostasis and augmenting the secretion of adipokines to enhance insulin sensitivity in patients with Alzheimer’s disease dementia. In this study from São Paulo, Brazil, we aimed to investigate whether ACE polymorphisms rs1800764 and rs4291 are associated with cognitive and functional change in patients with Alzheimer’s disease dementia, while also taking APOE haplotypes and anti-hypertensive treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors into account for stratification. Overall, 193 consecutive patients with late-onset Alzheimer’s disease dementia were screened with cognitive tests, while their caregivers were queried for functional and caregiver burden scores. Prospective pharmacogenetic correlations were estimated for one year, considering APOE and ACE genotypes and haplotypes, and treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Almost 94% of all patients used cholinesterase inhibitors, whereas 155 had arterial hypertension, and 124 used angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. No functional impacts were found regarding any genotypes or pharmacological treatment. Either for carriers of ACE haplotypes that included rs1800764 — T and rs4291 — A, or for APOE4- carriers of rs1800764 — T or rs4291 — T, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors slowed cognitive decline independently of blood pressure variations, possibly by way of central and peripheral effects. APOE4+ carriers were not responsive to treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. In conclusion, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may slow cognitive decline for patients with Alzheimer’s disease dementia, more remarkably for APOE4- carriers of specific ACE genotypes. Future trials should prospectively compare angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors according to their brain-penetrating properties since the start of anti-hypertensive therapy, with measurements of cerebrospinal fluid and serum levels and activity of the angiotensin-converting enzyme, as well as genetic profiles and neuroimaging parameters.
For more information on this research, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/156397/article
Journal: Current Alzheimer Research
Author(s): Matteo De Marco, Francesca Meneghello, Cristina Pilosio, Jessica Rigon, Annalena Venneri*
Background: Previous work designed a network-based protocol of cognitive training. This programme exploits a mechanism of induced task-oriented co-activation of multiple regions that are part of the default mode network (DMN), to induce functional rewiring and increased functional connectivity within this network.
Objective: In this study, the programme was administered to patients with a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment to test its effects in a clinical sample.
Method: Twenty-three patients with mild cognitive impairment (mean age: 73.74 years, standard deviation 5.13, female/male ratio 13/10) allocated to the experimental condition, underwent one month of computerised training, while fourteen patients (mean age: 73.14 years, standard deviation 6.16, female/ male ratio 7/7) assigned to the control condition underwent a regime of intense social engagement. Patients were in the prodromal stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) as confirmed by clinical follow ups for at least two years. The DMN was computed at baseline and retest, together with other, control patterns of connectivity, grey matter maps and neuropsychological profiles.
Results: A condition-by-timepoint interaction indicating increased connectivity triggered by the programme was found in left parietal DMN regions. No decreases as well as no changes in the other networks or morphology were found. Although between-condition cognitive changes did not reach statistical significance, they correlated positively with changes in DMN connectivity in the left parietal region, supporting the hypothesis that parietal changes were beneficial.
Conclusion: This programme of cognitive training up-regulates a pattern of connectivity which is pathologically down-regulated in AD. We argue that, when cognitive interventions are conceptualised as tools to induce co-activation repeatedly, they can lead to clinically relevant improvements in brain functioning, and can be of aid in support of pharmacological and other interventions in the earliest stages of AD.
Read more here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/158224/article
Author(s): Sushil K Sharma
For article details, visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/150882
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