Upcoming Thematic Issue – Oxidative Stress in Neurodegenerative and Psychiatric Disorders – Current Psychopharmacology

CP-THEMATIC FLYER -Dr. Puneet Kumar

http://benthamscience.com/journals/current-psychopharmacology/#top

World Mental Health Day!

world-mental-health-day

Today, on the 10th of October 2016, we raise awareness about the neurological, psychiatric and mental health disorders and their possible treatments with the rest of the world. Bentham Science Publishers has various research journals dedicated to the mental health research. The most significant ones are;

Current Neuropharmacology

Current Alzheimer Research

CNS & Neurological Disorders – Drug Targets

EurekAlert! – Drug discovery paradigm targets Tau protein aggregation linked to the Alzheimer’s disease

New research demonstrates novel drug discovery paradigm to target the aggregation of the Tau protein linked to the onset of Alzheimer’s and other related neurodegenerative diseases

Dementia and other tauopathies, most notably Alzheimer’s disease, embody a class of neurodegenerative diseases associated with the aggregation of the Tau protein in the human brain. These diseases represent one of the leading causes of death and disability in the elderly population in the western world, with no current effective therapy.

An international team of scientists led by Dr. Gergely Tóth at University of Cambridge (UK) and at Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary), with Professor Eckhard Mandelkow at Deutsches Zentrum fu?r Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen (Germany) in collaboration with Novalix (France) and Elan Pharmaceuticals (USA) reported the development of a novel therapeutic approach to target the monomeric Tau protein by small molecule drug candidates to maintain the protein’s native function and reduce its misfolding and aggregation, which is linked to the onset of these diseases.


The study was recently published in Current Alzheimers Research (CAR) (2015, 12, p814-828; http://www.eurekaselect.com/135879) and was selected as Editor’s Choice by;

Prof. D. K. Lahiri

(Editor-in-Chief)

Read more here: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-02/bsp-ddp022616.php 

Breast cancer impersonates neurons to invade the brain

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Women with breast cancer often enjoy several years in remission, only to then be given the devastating news that they have developed brain tumours. Now we are finally starting to understand how breast cancer cells are able to spread undetected in the brain: they masquerade as neurons and hijack their energy supply.

For every tumour that originates in the brain, 10 arrive there from other organ systems. Understanding how tumours spread, or metastasise, and survive in the brain is important because the survival rate of people with brain metastases is poor – only a fifth are still alive a year after being diagnosed.

Rahul Jandial, a neurosurgeon at the City of Hope Cancer Center in Duarte, California, wanted to explore how breast cancer cells are able to cross the blood-brain barrier and escape destruction by the immune system.

“If, by chance, a malignant breast cancer cell swimming in the bloodstream crossed into the brain, how would it survive in a completely new, foreign habitat?” Jandial says. He and his team wondered if breast cancer cells that could use the resources around them – neurotransmitters and other chemicals in the brain – would be the ones that survived and flourished.

To test the idea, they took samples of metastatic breast cancer cells from the brains of several women and grew them in the lab. They compared the expression of proteins involved in detecting and absorbing GABA – a common neurotransmitter that neurons convert into energy – in these cells with what happens in non-metastatic breast cancer cells.

Masters of disguise

Sure enough, the breast cancer cells taken from the brain expressed a receptor for GABA, plus a transporter protein that brings GABA into the cell, and a host of other compounds that convert GABA into energy. In this way, the metastatic tumour cells had in effect disguised themselves as neurons. No such machinery was seen in the non-metastatic breast cancer cells.

“The idea that metastasising cells can adopt a new identity, shielding them from intrinsic defence mechanisms, is very exciting and suggests that cancer cells are likely more plastic than previously suspected,” says Ellen Carpenter, a neuroscientist at the University of California, Los Angeles, who was not involved in the work. “I think this is likely a tremendous advance in breast cancer research.”

But understanding the neuronal disguise – a mechanism that other cancers may be using to spread in the brain, says Jandial – requires further work. For example, it’s not clear whether breast cancer cells evolved the GABA machinery by chance over time, or somehow acquired it from their environment.

Still, Jandial hopes the results will lead to new chemotherapies based on existing drugs for brain cancers or neurodegenerative disease, or help us discover novel drugs to treat tumours that spread to the brain. 

[Source: newscientist.com]