Contributed Article: “Dietary Compounds, Epigenetic Modifications and Metabolic Diseases“
Contributed Article: “Dietary Compounds, Epigenetic Modifications and Metabolic Diseases“
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This article by Dr. Jordan A. McKenzie et al. is published in Current Aging Science, Volume 10, Issue 3, 2017
In the journal Current Aging Science, a research team has reviewed modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. The reviewers focus on the possible role of neuroinflammation (inflammation of the nervous tissue) in neurodegenerative disease mechanisms. Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease are among the most common causes of dementia, and increasingly contribute to morbidity and mortality worldwide. A common hallmark of these two diseases is neuroinflammation, which is initially triggered by the presence of pathological molecular structures associated with these disorders. Chronic neuroinflammation is sustained by persistent activation of the non-neuronal glial cells in the brain, which results in damage or death of neighboring cells, including neurons and glial cells themselves. Persistent neuroinflammation of the brain is hypothesized to contribute to the neurodegeneration observed in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.
The reviewers note four modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases: physical inactivity, vascular disease-related conditions, obesity and type two diabetes mellitus. These modifiable risk factors contribute to neuroinflammation through specific mechanisms that are directly linked to the pathologies of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. These risk factors are deemed modifiable as their occurrence in the general population can be reduced, or avoided by individuals, through various lifestyle changes, such as improved diet, regular exercise and effective treatment of vascular disease-related conditions such as high blood pressure. This review highlights that the control of the modifiable risk factors is a valid approach for managing the increased incidence of both Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. In addition, the neuroinflammatory mechanisms common to Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases are described, which may link the above four common modifiable risk factors with both of these neurodegenerative diseases. A better understanding of the molecular mechanism of neuroinflammation could help identify new therapeutic targets for combating neurodegenerative diseases.
View the article here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/150884
Journal: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Author(s): Ibrahim Al-Zakwani, Wael Al-Mahmeed, Mohamed Arafah, Ali T. Al-Hinai, Abdullah Shehab, Omer Al-Tamimi, Mahmoud Al-Awadhi,Shorook Al-Herz, Faisal Al-Anazi, Khalid Al-Nemer, Othman Metwally, Akram Al-Khadra, Mohammed Fakhry, Hossam Elghetany, Abdel R. Medani,Afzal H. Yusufali, Obaid Al-Jassim, Omar Al-Hallaq, Fahad O.A.S. Baslaib, Haitham Amin, Raul D. Santos, Khalid Al-Waili, Khamis Al-Hashmi,Khalid Al-Rasadi.
We evaluated the control of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in the Centralized Pan-Middle East Survey on the undertreatment of hypercholesterolaemia (CEPHEUS) in the Arabian Gulf. Of the 4398 enrolled patients, overall mean age was 57 ± 11 years, 60% were males, 13% were smokers, 76% had diabetes, 71% had metabolic syndrome and 78% had very high ASCVD risk status. The proportion of subjects with body mass index <25 kg/m2, HbA1c <7% (in diabetics), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) <2.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL) and <1.8 mmol/L (70 mg/dL) for high and very high ASCVD risk cohorts, respectively and controlled blood pressure (<140/90 mmHg) was 14, 26, 31% and 60%, respectively. Only 1.4% of the participants had all of their CVD risk factors controlled with significant differences among the countries (P < .001). CVD risk goal attainment rates were significantly lower in those with very high ASCVD risk compared with those with high ASCVD risk status (P < .001). Females were also, generally, less likely to attain goals when compared with males (P < .001).
Read more here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/136029
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FoxO1, one of the most widely expressed sub-families of the winged helix forkhead factors, is biologically ‘omni-functional’ owing to its far-flung roles in metabolism, cell cycle, tissue differentiation and development and oxidative stress response. The knowledge of involvement of FoxO1 in metabolic disorders has long been there, but the potential target remained underutilized due to unavailability of specific and potent inhibitors. The review provides an insight into the role of FoxO1 in orchestrating metabolic diseases’ pathogenesis (including diabetes, its secondary complications and obesity) and compiles the literature on FoxO1 inhibitors. The emergence of various natural molecules and synthesized small molecules like AS1842856 as FoxO1 inhibitors urges us to think further and decide the future course of drug development for the management of metabolic disorders.
Abstract: Obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, and hypertension are often related and represent a major health burden in modern societies. Telmisartan (TEL) and Metformin HCl (MET) are widely used for the management of these commonly associated diseases. Few attempts have been made for the determination of TEL and MET in human plasma by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. This study describes the first chromatographic method for the simultaneous quantitation of TEL and MET in human plasma by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadruple tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS). Chromatography was performed on aC18 column with isocratic elution using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile, water and formic acid (88.2 11.7: 0.1), at a flow rate of 250 μL/min for a total run time of 2 min. Losartan (LOS) was used as the internal standard. Mass spectrometric analysis was carried out by a TSQ Quantum Access MAX triple quadruple system coupled with electro spray ionization (ESI) source in the positive ion mode. The assay was validated over a concentration range of 10–100 ng/ml for both drugs. The precision and accuracy for both intra- and inter-day determination of all analytes were acceptable (<15%). Stability of the compounds was established for short term bench and auto sampler storage as well as freeze/thaw cycles. Moreover, the method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in six healthy volunteers who had been given a single oral dose of metformin HCl and telmisartan, 500 mg and 40 mg, respectively.
Author(s): Linda Landini
Cardiovascular risk factors, irregardless of their assessment modalities, are based on cardiovascular health. Lifestyle influences metabolic profiles and these changes affect cardiovascular risk factors.
Cardiovascular risk factors can be classified into three basic categories: 1. Predisposing risk factors (e.g., age, gender, medical history, and genetic factors); 2. Clinical and metabolic factors (e.g., hypertension, changes in lipid metabolism, diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome, homocysteine, serum uric acid concetntrations, and L-arginine dimethylated derivatives); 3. Modifying behavioral factors (e.g., cigarette smoking, high caloric diet, alcohol intake, sedentary life). Some of these factors are metabolic components of body metabolism because they act by metabolic reactions while others characterized by structural alterations of the cardiovascular system, at least initially, exert their harmful effects by metabolic substrates.
Metabolic responses such as biochemical substances, drugs or others, that act initially as cardiovascular risk factors, identify that an early treatment of the altered parameters observed should be a useful approach to reduce the rate of heart attacks with a significant improvement in the outcome of cardiovascular disease.
Infertility is a silent problem that obese men have to face. This is a health issue that deserves attention from policymakers and the media.
The increasing number of overweight/obese individuals has established obesity as one of the most relevant health problems for years to come. Subfertility or infertility are silent problems that overweight/obese men have to face. This is particularly relevant since there is an enormous increase of children, adolescents and young adult men who are overweight or obese. This is a health issue that should be carefully addressed and deserves attention from policymakers and the media.
Dietary habits have an impact on male reproductive potential. A team led by Professor Pedro F. Oliveira at University of Porto, Portugal recently published a paper in the “Current Pharmaceutical Design” Journal discussing obesity and its impact on the reproductive potential of males. “Obesity is a metabolic disease that promotes a strong hormonal dysfunction. Gut hormones are known to be strongly affected by the energy unbalance induced by overconsumption of food. However, the impact of those hormones on male reproductive system remains unknown”, explained Marco G. Alves, first author of the paper. He further added that “Gut and adipose hormones are currently on spotlight for a growing number of researchers and the pandemic numbers of obesity highlights their relevance. A complete elucidation of male fertility involving those hormones will have important clinical implications and also unveil mechanisms and pathways for a therapeutic approach in the treatment of male subfertility/infertility associated with obesity.”
Read more here: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-04/bsp-oam041416.php