OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE – Comparative Neurophysiologic Study of Pain in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease and Patients with Persistent Pain After Spinal Surgery – Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering

Journal: Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering

Author(s): Masanaka Takeda, Hisao Tachibana, Fumiaki Okada, Shuhei Kasama, Hiroo Yoshikawa

Graphical Abstract:

Abstract:

Background: Pain is a common and troublesome non-motor symptom in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Similarly, severe postoperative pain is common after major spinal surgery and may become chronic. The pathophysiologic mechanism underlying those conditions remains unclear. In this study, we recorded pain-related evoked potentials induced by intra-epidermal electrical stimulation in patients with PD and patients with persistent pain after spinal surgery and compared the results between the two groups.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathophysiology of pain in patients with persistent pain after spinal surgery and in patients with PD.

Methods: We recorded pain-related evoked potentials in 23 patients with PD (64.0 years), 6 patients with persistent pain after spinal surgery (69.5 years) and 12 healthy controls (59.6 years).

Results: Major negative (N1) and positive (P1) deflections were observed after each stimulation. The amplitudes between N1 and P1 (N1-P1), which are thought to originate from the anterior cingulate cortex and insula, were significantly lower in both patients with PD and persistent pain after spinal surgery than in the controls (both P<0.01). However, there was no significant difference in N1-P1 amplitude between the patients with PD and the patients with persistent pain after spinal surgery. No significant differences in N1 and P1 latencies were observed among the three groups.

Conclusion: These results suggest that abnormal central processing of pain is present in patients with PD and those with chronic persistent pain after spinal surgery and that these two conditions share similar pathophysiologic mechanisms, at least partially.

Read more here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/152597

Most Accessed Article – Warming Up to New Possibilities with the Capsaicin Receptor TRPV1: mTOR, AMPK, and Erythropoietin – Current Neurovascular Research

Journal: Current Neurovascular Research

Author(s): Kenneth Maiese.

Abstract:

Background: Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a superfamily of ion channels termed after the trp gene in Drosophila that are diverse in structure and control a wide range of biological functions including cell development and growth, thermal regulation, and vascular physiology. Of significant interest is the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) receptor, also known as the capsaicin receptor and the vanilloid receptor 1, that is a non-selective cation channel sensitive to a host of external stimuli including capsaicin and camphor, venoms, acid/basic pH changes, and temperature.

Methods: Given the multiple modalities that TRPV1 receptors impact in the body, we examined and discussed the role of these receptors in vasomotor control, metabolic disorders, cellular injury, oxidative stress, apoptosis, autophagy, and neurodegenerative disorders and their overlap with other signal transduction pathways that impact trophic factors.

Results: Surprisingly, TRPV1 receptors do not rely entirely upon calcium signaling to affect cellular biology, but also have a close relationship with the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), and protein kinase B (Akt) that have roles in pain sensitivity, stem cell development, cellular survival, and cellular metabolism. These pathways with TRPV1 converge in the signaling of growth factors with recent work highlighting a relationship with erythropoietin (EPO). Angiogenesis and endothelial tube formation controlled by EPO requires, in part, the activation of TRPV1 receptors in conjunction with Akt and AMPK pathways.
Conclusion: TRPV1 receptors could prove to become vital to target disorders of vascular origin and neurodegeneration. Broader and currently unrealized implementations for both EPO and TRPV1 receptors can be envisioned for for the development of novel therapeutic strategies in multiple systems of the body.

 

To access the article, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/150838

Article by disease – “Oxytocin – A Multifunctional Analgesic for Chronic Deep Tissue Pain”

Article by disease on “Pain”

Abstract: The treatment of chronic pain arising from deep tissues is currently inadequate and there is need for new pharmacological agents to provide analgesia. The endogenous paracrine hormone/neurotransmitter oxytocin is intimately involved in the modulation of multiple physiological and psychological functions. Recent experiments have given clear evidence for a role of oxytocin in the modulation of nociception. The present article reviews the existent human and basic science data related to the direct and indirect effects of oxytocin on pain. Due to its analgesic, anxiolytic, antidepressant and other central nervous system effects, there is strong evidence that oxytocin and other drugs acting through the oxytocin receptor could act as multifunctional analgesics with unique therapeutic value.

Read more here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/node/125623/article

Does Metabolic Syndrome or its Individual Components Affect Pain and Function in Knee Osteoarthritis Women?

Author(s): Fatima E. Abourazzak, Sofia Talbi, Faiza Lazrak, Hamida Azzouzi, Nassia Aradoini, Salia Keita, Mourad Errasfa and Taoufik Harzy.

Abstract:

Background: Current studies and research support the role of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, few studies have focused on its impact on knee OA parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate if metabolic syndrome or its individual components affect the intensity of pain, functional disability, and radiographic severity in knee osteoarthritis women.Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study including confirmed radiographic knee osteoarthritis according to Kellgren and Lawrence scale, with and without metabolic syndrome according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The two groups were compared for pain Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Lequesne index, Womac function, and radiological grade after adjusting for significant covariates. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify the independent effects of each specific component for metabolic syndrome on knee osteoarthritis parameters.

Results: One hundred thirty women were included. The mean age was 56.68 ±8.07 [34-75] years, and the mean BMI was 32.54±2.92 [23-37] kg/m2. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 48.5%. Women with and without metabolic syndrome had similar knee osteoarthritis parameters. However, accumulation of MetS components was associated with higher level of pain (OR = 3.7, CI = [1.5-5.9], p=0.001), independently of age and BMI. Multiple regression analyses showed, after adjusting for all covariates, that hyperglycemia had a positive impact on pain (p=0.009), waist circumference was positively associated with Lequesne index (p=0.04), high triglycerides level was significantly associated with increased pain (p=0.04) and higher Lequesne score (p=0.05), and Systolic blood pressure was positively correlated with Lequesne index (p=0.01).

Conclusion: In addition to weight reduction, appropriate treatment of metabolic syndrome needs to become an important management strategy for knee pain and functional impairment.

Current Rheumatology Reviews, 11(1): 8-14.

Download the article from here: http://benthamscience.com/journals/current-rheumatology-reviews/volume/11/issue/1/page/8/

BSP High Impact Factor Journal:

7-17-2014 8-11-00 AM

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