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BSP Journal: Recent Patents on Anti-Infective Drug Discovery

 
ImageVolume 8 – Number 3

– Topical Antimicrobials for Burn Infections – An Update

Author(s): Mert Sevgi, Ani Toklu, Daniela Vecchio and Michael R. Hamblin

Affiliation: BAR414, 40 Blossom Street, Boston MA 02114, USA.

Abstract

The relentless rise in antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria and fungi, coupled with the high susceptibility of burn wounds to infection, and the difficulty of systemically administered antibiotics to reach damaged tissue, taken together have made the development of novel topical antimicrobials for burn infections a fertile area of innovation for researchers and companies. We previously covered the existing patent literature in this area in 2010, but the notable progress made since then, has highlighted the need for an update to bring the reader up to date on recent developments. New patents in the areas of topically applied antibiotics and agents that can potentiate the action of existing antibiotics may extend their useful lifetime. Developments have also been made in biofilm-disrupting agents. Antimicrobial peptides are nature’s way for many life forms to defend themselves against attack by pathogens. Silver has long been known to be a highly active antimicrobial but new inorganic metal derivatives based on bismuth, copper and gallium have emerged. Halogens such as chlorine and iodine can be delivered by novel technologies. A variety of topically applied antimicrobials include chitosan preparations, usnic acid, ceragenins and XF porphyrins. Natural product derived antimicrobials such as tannins and essential oils have also been studied. Novel techniques to deliver reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in situ have been developed. Light-mediated techniques include photodynamic therapy, ultraviolet irradiation, blue light, low-level laser therapy and titania photocatalysis. Passive immunotherapy employs antibodies against pathogens and their virulence factors. Finally an interesting new area uses therapeutic microorganisms such as phages, probiotic bacteria and protozoa to combat infections.

 

– Novel Quercetin Glycosides as Potent Anti-MRSA and Anti-VRE Agents

Author(s): Abugafar M.L. Hossion and Kenji Sasaki

Affiliation: The University of Pittsburgh, 100 Technology Drive, Pittsburgh, PA 15218, USA.

Abstract

Each year in the United States, at least 2 million people become infected with bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics and at least 23,000 people die each year as a direct result of these infections (Threat report 2013). Vancomycin is an FDA approved antibiotic and is growing importance in the treatment of hospital infections, with particular emphasis on its value to fight against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The increasing use of vancomycin to treat infections caused by the Gram-positive MRSA in the 1970s selected for drug-resistant enterococci, less potent than staphylococci but opportunistic in the space vacated by other bacteria and in patients with compromised immune systems. The dramatic rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria over the past two decades has stressed the need for completely novel classes of antibacterial agents. This paper reports the recent patent review on the strategy for finding novel quercetinglycoside type antibacterial agents against vancomycin-resistant bacterial strains.

 

– The Mechanism by which the Phenothiazine Thioridazine Contributes to Cure Problematic Drug-Resistant Forms of Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Recent Patents for “New Use”

Author(s): Leonard Amaral, Ana Martins, Gabriella Spengler, Attila Hunyadi and Joseph Molnar

Affiliation: Travel Medicine, Centro de Malária Doenças Tropicais, Institute of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Rua Junqueira 100, 1349-008 Lisbon, Portugal.

Abstract

At this moment, over half million patients suffer from multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) according to the data from the WHO. A large majority is terminally ill with essentially incurable pulmonary tuberculosis. This herein mini-review provides the experimental and observational evidence that a specific phenothiazine, thioridazine, will contribute to cure any form of drug-resistant tuberculosis. This antipsychotic agent is no longer under patent protection for its initial use. The reader is informed on the recent developments in patenting this compound for “new use” with a special emphasis on the aspects of drug-resistance. Given that economic motivation can stimulate the use of this drug as an antitubercular agent, future prospects are also discussed.

 

Parenteral Patent Drug S/GSK1265744 has the Potential to be an Effective Agent in Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Against HIV Infection

Author(s): Huda Taha, James Morgan, Archik Das and Satyajit Das

Affiliation: Department of HIV Medicine, Coventry & Warwickshire Partnership Trust, United Kingdom.

Abstract

The continuing HIV epidemic has driven advancements in antiretroviral therapy. New therapeutic targets have been identified over the past years, one of which has been the Integrase enzyme. This is responsible for integrating HIV pro-DNA into the host cell genome and has proved a successful drug target.

 

Efforts have also been made to improve the pharmacokinetic parameters of current drug therapy and utilise these techniques in maximising drug therapeutic effect whilst minimising adverse events. An exciting example of new technologies is that of nanotechnology where drugs can be specifically targeted to certain tissues and drug delivery can be improved by utilising biological molecules and structures.

Pre-exposure prophylaxis is also an area of much interest currently both on an individual and population level. Compliance is however a major issue with daily medication to prevent HIV acquisition as has been demonstrated with contraceptive agents. However if long acting compounds can be developed, compliance can be improved.

The patent drug currently being developed through nanotechnology as an analogue of Dolutegravir, GSK1265744 LAP (Long Acting Parenteral) has shown promise as a Long Acting Integrase Inhibitor with potential action both as a therapeutic agent but also in pre-exposure prophylaxis. The favourable pharmacokinetic profile and therapeutic efficacy in comparison to other compounds of the same class demonstrate it to be a promising advance. However given current limitations in study material, further randomised studies with long term follow up are required to fully evaluate the value of the patent drug GSK1265744 LAP in action in both seropositive and seronegative individuals.

For details on the journal, please visit: Recent Patents on Anti-Infective Drug Discovery

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