Most cited article: Factors Associated with Primary Hypertension in Pediatric Patients: An Up-to-Date

Author(s):Isabella Barreto S. MachadoMatheus Rampinelli TofanelliAriadna A. Saldanha da Silva and Ana Cristina Simões e Silva*

Background: Arterial hypertension in children is considered a common alteration nowadays, mainly because obesity is a growing worldwide problem closely related to increased blood pressure. Childhood hypertension can be classified as primary or secondary, depending on the etiology. Primary or essential hypertension still has its pathophysiology not fully elucidated, and there is no consensus in the literature on most underlying mechanisms. In this review, genetic and environmental factors, including sodium and potassium intake, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, family structure, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, prematurity and low birth weight, prenatal and postnatal exposures are highlighted.

Objective: The present study aimed to perform an update on primary hypertension in childhood, providing clinicians and researchers an overview of the current state of the literature regarding the influence of genetic and environmental factors.

Methods: This integrative review searched for articles on genetic and environmental factors related to primary hypertension in pediatric patients. The databases evaluated were PubMed and Scopus.

Results: The studies have provided insights regarding many genetic and environmental factors, in addition to their association with the pathophysiology of primary hypertension in childhood. Findings corroborated the idea that primary hypertension is a multifactorial disease. Further studies in the pediatric population are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

Conclusion: The study of primary hypertension in pediatrics has utmost importance for the adoption of preventive measures and the development of more efficient treatments, therefore reducing childhood morbidity and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and other health consequences later in life.

Recent Insights into COVID-19 in Children and Clinical Recommendations

Jairo Castellar-López, Wendy Villamizar-Villamizar, Aldo Amaranto-Pallares, Wendy Rosales-Rada, Maria De Los Angeles Vélez Verbel, Aileen Chang, Franklin Torres Jiménez, Evelyn Mendoza-Torres

DOI: 10.2174/1573396317666211206124347

What is it about?

Pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) have been recognized in multiple countries globally. In this review, we provide recent insights into SARS-CoV-2 infection in children from epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory perspectives, including reports on the disease course and therapy. We highlight key features of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children, the relationship between MIS-C and Kawasaki disease, and summarize treatment guidelines for COVID-19 in children from institutional protocols from Colombia, case reports, recommendations based on expert consensus, and official statements from organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO), United States Center for Disease Control (CDC), Colombian Association of Infectious Diseases, and the Colombian Society of Pediatrics. Finally, we discuss gaps in research with suggestions for future research on the pathogenesis underlying pediatric COVID-19.

Why is it important?

While recent reports of pediatric infections show better prognosis than in adults, a growing number of children are being affected as transmission continues and the long-term impact in children is unknown. Furthermore, infections in children pose an important challenge for infection control measures. Therefore, it is justified to review the impact that SARS-CoV-2 has had on the pediatric population. This work aimed to review recent insights into SARS-CoV-2 infection in children from an epidemiological, clinical and laboratory perspective, including reports on the disease course and therapy. Read now:

Most Cited Article – COVID-19 in Pediatrics: A Systematic Review of Current Knowledge and Practice

Author(s):Esmaeil MehraeenShahram OliaeiSeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi*Amirali KarimiPegah MirzapourAmir Masoud AfsahiAlireza BarzegaryFarzin VahediMahdi SoleymanzadehFarzane BehnezhadMohammad JavaherianGhazal ZargariSeyed Peyman MirghaderiTayebeh Noori and Jean-Marc Sabatier

Volume 22, Issue 5, 2022

Published on: 18 April, 2022

Article ID: e290921196908

Pages: 11

DOI: 10.2174/1871526521666210929121705


Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 is the novel coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome and could afflict individuals from all walks of life. Children are usually asymptomatic or represent non-specific mild to moderate symptoms; therefore, they often remain undiagnosed and could be potential reservoirs and silent carriers of the virus. Despite the global attention to COVID-19 and its importance in public health, some clinical and paraclinical aspects of this disease in children are still unclear. Thus, we conducted a comprehensive systematic review of available literature to reflect on the current knowledge and practice of the disease among children.

Methods: This study was a systematic review of current evidence conducted in October 2020. We performed a systematic search using the keywords in online databases. The investigation adheres to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist to ensure the reliability and validity of extracted literature and results.

Results: We selected and reviewed 23 most related studies out of 1744 identified papers in an initial online search based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the present review; of whom 13 were original research studies, and 10 were letters to the editors, commentaries, viewpoints, consensus statements, and perspectives. Although due to the origin of the current pandemic, China was the country with the most publications (12 articles), data from several countries have been included in this review.

Conclusion: COVID-19 can also affect children and cause systemic disease with several internal organ involvements. However, the prevalence, severity, and diversity of the symptoms in children are less than in adults. Cough and fever appear to be some of the most common symptoms, followed by other symptoms such as gastrointestinal manifestations. Comorbidities increase the risk of severe COVID-19 in children, and those without underlying conditions are very unlikely to suffer from severe disease. Mental health issues such as anxiety and depression due to the isolated situation caused by pandemics are common findings in children of early ages and should be seriously considered in current practice. Read now:

Call for Papers | Current Chinese Medical Science


Current Chinese Medical Science publishes original research articles, letters, case reports, reviews/mini-reviews and guest edited thematic issues dealing with various topics related to medical science in China, while contributions from abroad are also welcome.

Current Chinese Medical Science is not limited to a specific aspect of the field but is instead devoted to a wide range of sub fields in the field. Articles of interdisciplinary nature are particularly welcome. Submission in the following areas are of special interest to the readers of this journal:

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Hypertension
  • Oncology
  • Genetics
  • Endocrinology
  • Nuclear medical science
  • Cell and molecular Biology
  • Biochemistry
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Hematology
  • Diagnostic and molecular imaging
  • General and internal medicine
  • Gastroenterology
  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Clinical and Experimental Pathology
  • Nephrology
  • Orthopaedics
  • Geriatrics
  • Paediatrics
  • Neurology
  • Nutrition
  • Pharmacology
  • Dermatology
  • Exercise and sports medicine
  • Palliative care

To submit your paper, email at: and CC:



Articles by Diseases – Pediatrics and Neonatology


Ethical Considerations in Conducting Pediatric and Neonatal Research in Clinical Pharmacology 

Author(s): Michelle Roth-Cline and Robert M. Nelson

Abstract: The critical need for pediatric research on drugs and biological products underscores the responsibility to ensure that children are enrolled in clinical research that is both scientifically necessary and ethically sound. In this chapter, we review key ethical considerations concerning the participation of children. We review a basic ethical framework to guide pediatric research, and suggest how this framework might be operationalized in linking science and ethics. Topics examined include: the status of children as a vulnerable population; the appropriate balance of risk and potential benefit in research; and parental permission and child assent to participate in research.

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See more articles categorized by diseases in the tab ‘Articles by Disease’ on our website


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