Most Cited Article – Susceptibility to Rhinovirus-induced Early Wheezing as a Risk Factor for Subsequent Asthma Development

Author(s):Hannele Mikkola*Minna HonkilaTerhi Tapiainen and Tuomas Jartti

Volume 18, Issue 2, 2022

Published on: 03 January, 2022

Page: [86 – 94]

Pages: 9

DOI: 10.2174/1573398X18666220103113813


Rhinovirus is one of the two most common viral agents that cause bronchiolitis in young children. During the first 12 months, it is second to the respiratory syncytial virus, but after 12 months, it begins dominating the statistics. Wheezing and dry cough are typical clinical symptoms indicative of rhinovirus-induced bronchiolitis, although overlap of symptoms with other virus infections is common. Several studies have shown that atopic predisposition and reduced interferon responses increase susceptibility to rhinovirus-induced wheezing. More recent studies have found that certain genetic variations at strong asthma loci also increase susceptibility. Rhinovirus-induced wheezing in the early years of life is known to increase the risk of subsequent asthma development and may be associated with airway remodeling. This risk is increased by aeroallergen sensitization. Currently, there are no clinically approved preventive treatments for asthma. However, studies show promising results indicating that children with rhinovirus-affected first-time wheezing respond to bronchodilators in terms of less short-term symptoms and that controlling airway inflammatory responses with anti-inflammatory medication may markedly decrease asthma development. Also, enhancing resistance to respiratory viruses has been a topic of discussion. Primary and secondary prevention strategies are being developed with the aim of decreasing the incidence of asthma. Here, we review the current knowledge on rhinovirus-induced early wheezing as a risk factor for subsequent asthma development and related asthma-prevention strategies. Read now:

Editor’s Choice – Correlations and Influence of TAP2 Genes Polymorphisms and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Propensity

Author(s):Zahra RezaieyazdiHosein NomaniMohammad Reza HatefJalil Tavakol AfshariMahnaz AbbasiHabibollah Esmaily and Mandana Khodashahi*

Volume 17, Issue 4, 2021

Published on: 09 March, 2021

Page: [404 – 411]

Pages: 8

DOI: 10.2174/1573397117666210309152847


Objectives: The present study was designed to evaluate the association of transporters associated with antigen processing (TAP2) polymorphisms TAP2-379Ile > Val (rs1800454), TAP2-665Thr > Ala (rs241447) and TAP2-565Ala > Thr (rs2228396) as a candidate gene with susceptibility to the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE).

Methods: To analyze these three polymorphic variants, 88 patients with SLE and 100 healthy controls from northeastern Iran were enrolled from May 2018 to July 2019. Genomic DNA polymorphisms were performed by amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) technique. Data were analyzed by SPSS software.

Results: In this cross-sectional study, there was a stratification between patients and controls. The distribution of the frequency of Ala73 (41.5%) allele at TAP2/665 and Ile 19 (10.8%) allele at TAP2/379 was higher in patients. Additionally, the Ala/Ala 13(14.8%) and Ala/Thr 49(55.7%) genotypes distributions at 665 positions were higher in SLE patients compared to the controls. Furthermore, frequencies of TAP2*H allele significantly increased in SLE patients 10(5.71%) (P=0.01). Frequency of TAP2*A allele in the control group was 120(60%) (p=0.06) due to the dominant genetic model. This allele has a protective effect against SLE. There was no relationship between TAP2*D, TAP2*E, TAP2*F and TAP2*G alleles with the outbreak of SLE.

Conclusion: Our data indicated that genetic variants in TAP2 gene may be associated with SLE disease. A correlation between Ala allele at TAP2/665 and Ile allele at TAP2/379 polymorphisms and pathogenesis of SLE was observed. Read now:

Press Release for EurekAlert! Non-ambient conditions in the investigation and manufacturing of drug forms

To become a drug, a pharmacologically active compound must be prepared in a specific form. This form must be robust during manufacturing, packaging, storage and transport, and must administer the correct dose to the patient. To successfully prepare a drug form, one often needs to produce solid samples with controlled crystal structure and a specific particle size and shape. To further complicate matters, these compounds, these drug particles must often end up as a part of a multi-component composite. The present review summarizes how extreme pressure and temperature conditions help achieve this highly tuned material.

In modern culture, it is very rare to find an individual who has never taken any form of medication. It must follow that the pharmaceutical industry is required to produce an enormous quantity of drug products, which can take a variety of different forms: solutions for injections, inhalation powders, sprays, tablets, ointments, patches, amongst others. In many cases, although adopting different administration routes, different trade names are used to market the very same active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). This begs the question: if these products are the same API, is there any difference in which form is taken?

Quite simply put, yes.

Drug molecules move around the body and, by necessity, act at the molecular level. However, many of these compounds are manufactured as solids, which must either be dissolved prior to injection, or are expected to dissolve on digestion in biological fluids. In either case, dissolution is required to release individual molecules into the body.

Solid pharmaceuticals containing the same API (either pure or with additives) can have different crystal structures (polymorphism) or be amorphous. Additionally, solid particles can differ in size, shape, meso-structure, and surface charge. Within the bulk material, the spatial distribution of an API and the additives can vary. Control of these, and many other, characteristics is within the scope of materials sciences and solid-state chemistry. The chemical and material properties of their physical form therefore needs to be identified and optimized for in vivo performance, reliable manufacture and the protection of intellectual property.

Drugs are materials, not simply molecules [1-12], By viewing drugs in this way, one can apply the knowledge of solid-state chemistry, materials science and non-ambient conditions to obtain solid forms with optimized properties. These conditions include, among others, different types of mechanical and ultrasonic treatment, hydrostatic compression, high-temperature or cryogenic spray-drying, and crystallization from supercritical solvents. Solid-state reactions (e.g. dehydration or clathrate decomposition) can be efficient in accessing metastable polymorphs or in uniformly micronizing the sample. To achieve control over drug forms and the processes used for their robust manufacturing, one needs to account for both the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of their transformations.

The review contains over 400 references and provides a comprehensive guide through the vast ocean of publications in this field. This work is based on the personal experience of the author over several decades of active research.

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BSP Patent Journal- Recent Patents on Biomarkers

Recent Patents on Biomarkers

7-24-2014 11-31-47 AM

ISSN: 2210-3104 (Online)
ISSN: 2210-3090 (Print)

Volume 4, 3 Issues, 2014

Aims & Scope

Recent Patents on Biomarkers publishes review and research articles, and guest edited thematic issues on important recent patents on biomarkers. The coverage includes novel biomarkers in basic, medical, environmental, and pharmaceutical research. A selection of important and recent patents on biomarkers is also included in the journal. The journal is essential reading for all researchers involved in biomarker research and discovery. The journal also covers recent research (where patents have been registered) in fast emerging patent biomarker applications; discovery and validation are covered for drug discovery, clinical development and molecular diagnostics.

Abstracted & Indexed in:

Chemical Abstracts, MediaFinder®-Standard Periodical Directory, J-Gate, PubsHub, CABI.

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