Recent Insights into COVID-19 in Children and Clinical Recommendations

Jairo Castellar-López, Wendy Villamizar-Villamizar, Aldo Amaranto-Pallares, Wendy Rosales-Rada, Maria De Los Angeles Vélez Verbel, Aileen Chang, Franklin Torres Jiménez, Evelyn Mendoza-Torres

DOI: 10.2174/1573396317666211206124347

What is it about?

Pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) have been recognized in multiple countries globally. In this review, we provide recent insights into SARS-CoV-2 infection in children from epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory perspectives, including reports on the disease course and therapy. We highlight key features of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children, the relationship between MIS-C and Kawasaki disease, and summarize treatment guidelines for COVID-19 in children from institutional protocols from Colombia, case reports, recommendations based on expert consensus, and official statements from organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO), United States Center for Disease Control (CDC), Colombian Association of Infectious Diseases, and the Colombian Society of Pediatrics. Finally, we discuss gaps in research with suggestions for future research on the pathogenesis underlying pediatric COVID-19.

Why is it important?

While recent reports of pediatric infections show better prognosis than in adults, a growing number of children are being affected as transmission continues and the long-term impact in children is unknown. Furthermore, infections in children pose an important challenge for infection control measures. Therefore, it is justified to review the impact that SARS-CoV-2 has had on the pediatric population. This work aimed to review recent insights into SARS-CoV-2 infection in children from an epidemiological, clinical and laboratory perspective, including reports on the disease course and therapy. Read now: https://bit.ly/3eKQHEp

TESTIMONIAL BY PUSHPENDER K. SHARMA!

Pushpender K. Sharma

Contributed Article: “Clinical, Prognostic and Therapeutic Significance of Heat Shock Proteins in Cancer

MOST ACCESSED ARTICLE – The Use of Biomarkers in Sepsis – Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Journal: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Author(s): Konstantinos Giannakopoulos*, Ursula Hoffmann, Uzair Ansari, Thomas Bertsch, Martin Borggrefe,Ibrahim Akin, Michael Behnes

Graphical Abstract:

 

Abstract:

Background: Despite the extended laboratory and clinical study of sepsis, its diagnosis remains a clinical challenge. The initiation of sepsis activates many different biochemical and immunological pathways being expressed by alterations of various molecules in human tissues. The detection and measurement of the concentration of such molecules, known as biomarkers, may be a diagnostic tool of great significance for clinicians dealing with suspected sepsis. Additionally, biomarkers may predict patients ´ outcome and may play a role in monitoring response to therapy.

Methods: Most relevant clinical and experimental biomarker studies on sepsis were retrieved and reviewed in this article.

Results: Although many biomarkers were evaluated for the diagnosis and prognosis in sepsis, until now not one has been proven to be absolutely reliable in the clinical field. Currently C-reactive proteine (CPR) and procalcitonin (PCT) are used worldwide routinely, nevertheless their values may elevate in clinical settings without sepsis, while they often fail to provide reliable prediction of the patient outcome.
Conclusion: This review outlines most relevant circulating biomarkers in sepsis.
To access the article, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/152828

 

ARTICLE TO READ ON WORLD DIABETES DAY

Epidemiology of Diabetes Mellitus in the United Arab Emirates

Journal: Current Diabetes Reviews

Author(s): Hira Abdul Razzak, Alya Harbi, Wael Shelpai, Ahmad Qawas

Abstract:

Background/ Objective: Diabetes mellitus is a non-communicable disease which has become a major global public health issue. This systematic review summarized epidemiological studies related to the prevalence, risk factors, complications, incidence, knowledge, attitude and practices of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) among Arab population in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Method: PubMed, Scopus databases, Science direct, Wiley online library, and other local journals were searched to identify relevant literature using appropriate keywords to retrieve studies conducted in the UAE. Search limits were restricted to studies in English language, between 2007 and 2016, and on UAE population (both citizens and expatriates).

Results: Electronic database search yielded 24 studies about the prevalence, incidence, complications, risk factors, knowledge, attitudes and practices of diabetes, including cross sectional studies (n =18), population-based survey (n = 1), retrospective cohort studies (n = 3), qualitative (n=1), and randomized controlled trial (n = 1). Countrywide prevalence estimates of Diabetes Mellitus were reported to be high. The major determinants of Diabetes Mellitus involved hypertension, physical inactivity, sedentary lifestyle, and unhealthy diet.

Conclusion: Even though past evidences have promulgated the role of numerous causative factors, the epidemiological implications of some of the risk factors including family history, educational level, and the use of alcohol remains elusive. This systematic review signifies epidemiology of Diabetes Mellitus in the United Arab Emirates and suggests that extra efforts are needed for preventive and curative strategies in order to decrease the burden of this non-communicable disease.

Read more here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/155750

 

Press Release for EurekAlert! Virus-derived expression vectors as gene therapy vehicles

This research article by Dr. Srividhya Venkataraman et al has been published in Recent Patents on Biotechnology, Volume 11, Issue 2, 2017

Graphical Abstract:

 

Even as new viruses are being identified, the emerging field of virus discovery, identification of their nucleotide sequences, gene expression patterns and complexities of virus-host interactions at the molecular level are being used in recent years towards applications in the human medicine as well as veterinary, agricultural and other biotechnological purposes. Several patents pertaining to this field have been filed successfully and the current review addresses recent patents pertaining to the use of virus sequences as RNA silencing agents and virus-derived expression vectors as gene therapy vehicles. Specifically, these patents demonstrate the use of viral sequences to silence positive-sense RNA viruses such as Flaviviruses, Picornaviruses, Togaviruses, Herpesviruses and minus-stranded RNA viruses such as Filoviruses, virus-induced gene silencing in plants, expression vectors of Poxviruses, Flaviviruses, Influenza viruses, Adeno-associated viruses, expression vectors based on plant viruses and viral expression vectors applicable to the fish industry. Virus-derived short double-stranded RNAs and DNA-based antisense antiviral compounds are used at low dosage to specifically and effectively mediate RNA interference or RNA silencing and downregulate viral replication. Also, Virus-Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) is used to identify gene functions in plants. Expression vectors based on poxviruses engineered to code for HIV and other viral immunogens are popular vaccine candidates. Pseudoinfectious viruses that can undergo a single round of infection in vivo, mimicking whole viral infections while inducing strong T- and B-cell immunity are also discussed. Another patent discusses a multi-vector scheme for generating recombinant and reassortant Influenza Viruses. A recombinant Papaya Mosaic Virus coat protein forming virus-like particles (VLPs) with Influenza Virus epitopes exposed on their surface is also mentioned. However, the current inventions addressed in these patents require scrupulous testing in clinical trials (for medical and veterinary uses) and field trials (for agricultural uses) that are yet to be achieved. It is also important to consider the influence of prior host-environment interactions and the previous history of exposure to pathogenic organisms. Testing of these virus-derived genetically engineered vehicles has to go further beyond mere success in laboratory-derived cell culture systems and experimental animals / plants.

For more information, please visit http://www.eurekaselect.com/150556

BSP Patent Journal- Recent Patents on Biomarkers

Recent Patents on Biomarkers

7-24-2014 11-31-47 AM

ISSN: 2210-3104 (Online)
ISSN: 2210-3090 (Print)

Volume 4, 3 Issues, 2014

Aims & Scope

Recent Patents on Biomarkers publishes review and research articles, and guest edited thematic issues on important recent patents on biomarkers. The coverage includes novel biomarkers in basic, medical, environmental, and pharmaceutical research. A selection of important and recent patents on biomarkers is also included in the journal. The journal is essential reading for all researchers involved in biomarker research and discovery. The journal also covers recent research (where patents have been registered) in fast emerging patent biomarker applications; discovery and validation are covered for drug discovery, clinical development and molecular diagnostics.

Abstracted & Indexed in:

Chemical Abstracts, MediaFinder®-Standard Periodical Directory, J-Gate, PubsHub, CABI.

For more details, visit: http://benthamscience.com/journal/index.php?journalID=rpbm

BSP Patent Journal: Recent Patents on Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery

ImageRecent Patents on Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery

ISSN: 2212-3970 (Online)
ISSN: 1574-8928 (Print).

Editor-in-Chief:
Khurshid Zaman
Bentham Science Publishers
USA

Breast Cancer: Current Developments in Molecular Approaches to Diagnosis and Treatment

Author(s): Jo-Anne de la Mare, Lara Contu, Morgan C. Hunter, Buhle Moyo, Jason N. Sterrenberg, Karim C.H. Dhanani, Lorraine Z. Mutsvunguma and Adrienne L. Edkins

Affiliation: Biomedical Biotechnology Research Unit (BioBRU), Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Biotechnology, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa.

Abstract

Due to the high heterogeneity of breast cancers, numerous recent patents describe improved methods of detection and classification which promise better patient prognosis and treatment. In particular, there has been a shift towards more effective genetic screening to identify specific mutations associated with breast tumours, which may lead to “personalised medicine” with improved outcomes. Two challenging areas of breast cancer research involve the development of treatments for the highly aggressive triple negative breast cancer subtype as well as the chemotherapy-resistant cancer stem cell subpopulation. In addition, despite numerous recent advances in breast cancer treatment in woman, male breast cancer remains poorly understood and there are limited therapies available which are developed specifically for men. This review serves to report on important developments in the treatment of breast malignancies patented in the past two years as well as to highlight the current gaps in the field of breast cancer therapeutics and areas which require further study.

For details on the journal, please visit: Recent Patents on Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery
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