EDITOR’S CHOICE – Biologics in Inflammatory and Immunomediated Arthritis – Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Journal:  Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Author(s): Michele M. Luchetti*, Devis Benfaremo, Armando Gabrielli.


Background: Biologic drugs, introduced in clinical practice almost twenty years ago, represent nowadays a prominent treatment option in patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis, such as Rheumatoid Arthritis, Psoriatic Arthritis and Spondyloarthritis, that include ankylosing spondylitis and non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis.

Methods: Several compounds targeting different pathways have been marketed and approved for the treatment of inflammatory arthritis, with a significant impact on the clinical outcomes and the natural history of the diseases.

Results: There are currently seven classes of biologics that are available for the treatment of inflammatory arthritis, each inhibiting a different aspect of the immune-driven inflammatory pathway.

They include:

• Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) inhibitors (infliximab, adalimumab, etanercept, golimumab and certolizumab pegol);

• Interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonists (anakinra);

• Interleukin-6 (IL-6) inhibition (tocilizumab);

• Interleukin-12/23 (IL23) inhibition (ustekinumab);

• Interleukin-17 (IL-17) inhibition (secukinumab);

• B-cell inhibition (anti-CD20, rituximab);

• T-cell costimulation inhibition (anti-CTLA-4, abatacept).

Conclusion: In this review, we will focus on the role of biologic drugs in the treatment strategies for inflammatory arthritis.

Read more here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/158616/article



EDITOR’S CHOICE – C60-fullerenes as Drug Delivery Carriers for Anticancer Agents – Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology

Journal: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology

Author(s): Manish Kumar, Kaisar Raza

Graphical Abstract:



Background: C60-fullerenes (CFs) constitute a carbon-allotropic family with cage-like fused-ring structure, comprising of 20 hexagons and 12 pentagons. Since discovery in 1985, CFs attracted the scientists from various strata for unique properties like tensile strength, nanometeric size, symmetric nature, thermal and photo conductivity, chemical tailoring opportunities and drug loading capabilities. Surprisingly, CFs are also established to possess antiviral, neuroprotective, antiinflammatory, MRI contrast and antioxidant properties. Though extensively explored for chemical modifications and therapeutic benefits, CFs and derivatives also offer immense promises in drug delivery, especially to the cancerous cells.

Objective: The present review is an attempt to highlight the promises of CFs in drug delivery, esp. of anticancer agents. The review also analyzes the safety concerns of CF-based drug delivery and attempts to discuss the promises and challenges in the light of preclinical and clinical data.

Methods: The raw material (research/review articles) for the manuscript was collected from Pubmed, Google scholar and Scopus and the keywords used were fullerenes, nanotechnology, nanomedicine, functionalization, safety, drug delivery and biomedical applications.

Conclusion: The drug release rate controlling behavior, higher drug loading, immuno-neutrality, substantial biocompatibility, capability to bypass mononuclear phagocytic system, long circulating nature and tissue extraction by virtue of enhanced permeability and retention effect are the major promises of these nanocarriers. On the other hand, the concerns like elimination from the biological system, anticipated tissue toxicity, stability of the final product, sterility issues and commercial viability pose challenges in proper utilization of CFs as ideal drug delivery carriers. However, a few commercial products based on CFs with human safety evidences provide a ray of hope.

Read more here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/150572/article


Editor’s Choice – Model Validity in Nanoimmunosafety: Advantages and Disadvantages of In vivo vs In vitro Models, and Human vs Animal Models – Current Bionanotechnology

Journal: Current Bionanotechnology

Author(s): Diana Boraschi, Paola Italiani.

Graphical Abstract:



The thorough understanding of the interaction between nanomaterials and the immune system is the starting point both for nanomaterial exploitation in nanomedicine and for the implementation of an effective regulatory framework concerning nanosafety for human health and the environment. In this context, the use of valid models, in vitro and in vivo, is central for assessing both the positive and the detrimental effects of nanomaterials, thereby predicting their possible risks for human and environmental health. Thus, predicting models are sought that allow us on one side defining hazard posed by nanomaterials, and therefore implementing safety regulation and safe-by-design nanotechnologies, and on the other side exploiting nanomaterials for more effective therapeutic and preventive medical strategies. Here, we consider the advantages and limitation of the current in vitro and in vivo human and animal models, and the appropriateness of their use for assessing the effects of nanomaterials on immunity.

Read more here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/142770

Article by Disease – “Efficacy and Safety Assessment of Hypertension Management with Coveram (Perindopril/Amlodipine Fixed Combination) in Patients with Previous Angiotensin Receptor Blocker (ARB) Treatment: Arabian Gulf STRONG Study”

Article by Disease on “Cardiology


Objective: We evaluated the safety and efficacy of hypertension management with Coveram (perindopril/amlodipine combination) in patients with uncontrolled blood pressure (BP). All patients were on previous angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) treatment.

Methods: This was a 3 country, multi-centre (7 cities), open-label, observational study in the Arabian Gulf. Patients (18 years) were recruited between October 2012 and November 2013 and followed-up for 3 months after enrolment. Outcomes included changes in BP from baseline and BP goal attainment rates as per Joint National Committee- 8 (<140/90 mmHg for diabetics and those <60 years of age and <150/90 mmHg for those 60 years of age without diabetes). Medication tolerance was also assessed from both patient and physician perspectives.

Results: Hypertensive patients (n=760; mean age: 51±10 years; 67% were males) were included. A total of 178 patients (23%) were lost to follow-up. The perindopril/amlodipine combination was associated with an overall reduction in systolic BP (SBP) (31 mmHg; p<0.001) and diastolic BP (DBP) (18 mmHg; p<0.001) from baseline. An overall BP control rate was achieved in 87% (n=507) of the participants. There were significant incremental BP reductions with dose up-titration, especially SBP (p<0.001). Those with high SBP (>180 mmHg) at baseline were associated with a mean reduction of 59 mmHg (p<0.001). The perindopril/amlodipine combination had excellent tolerance levels over the study period from both patient and physician perspectives (at 99% and 98%, respectively; p<0.001).

Conclusions: The perindopril/amlodipine combination is an effective and well tolerated anti-hypertensive option in patients on previous ARB treatment.

Read more: http://www.eurekaselect.com/node/144156/article

Most Accessed Article – “Herb-Drug Interactions: An Insight into Cardiovascular Diseases Based on Case Reports”

Journal: Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry

Author(s): Cheila Batista, N. R. Jesus, Catia M. Silva, Tiago P. Silva, Maria G. Campos

Graphical Abstract: 


Cardiovascular patients frequently use herbal medicinal products, in order to contribute to the improvement of their chronic condition without medical intervention. However, they are likely to suffer from adverse effects from natural products and herb-drug interactions. In this work we present the results collected from a public campaign “Learning Health, among Plants and Medicines”, carried out by the Observatory of Herb-Drug Interactions (www.oipm.uc.pt), to alert cardiovascular patients and healthcare providers for the potential occurrence of herb-drug interactions with cardiovascular therapy. From the data received, it was highlighted the prevalence of certain natural products used by many cardiovascular patients in Portugal, particularly goji berries, green tea, mangosteen and rooibos that have significant cardiovascular effects. For this reason their intake should be carefully monitored in these patients. This prevalence of consumption suggests a pattern in their use in Portugal and a prevention of herb-drug interactions should be carried out by the health professionals. The ending results also indicate that there is still a lack of knowledge about the possible risks of herbal products intake, which may adversely affect the health of any patient. Thus becomes clear the value of the role of health professionals in the screening of such interactions.

To access the article, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/146169