Article by Disease | Statins in Aortic Disease

Bentham Cardiovascular Disorders Collection | Cardiovascular Disorders | Aortic Coarctation 

 

Abstract:

Background: Numerous studies indicate that statins have multiple beneficial actions (known as ‘pleiotropic actions’) on cardiovascular system through the improvement of endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative stress, excessive arterial thrombosis, and stabilization of the atherosclerotic plaque. Aortic disease primarily consists of aortic valve stenosis, aortic valve regurgitation, aneurysm disease, and genetic disorders such as Marfan syndrome, bicuspid aortic valve and aortic coarctation. Many studies have revealed the cardioprotective actions of statins in aortic disease.

Objective: Our aim was to present current data concerning the value of treatment with statins in aortic diseases.

Methods: A thorough search of PubMed and the Cochrane Database was conducted to identify the studies and novel articles related to the use of statins in aortic disease.

Results: Numerous studies in animals and humans indicate a beneficial effect of treatment with statins in the previous conditions apart from a few conflicting data.

Conclusion: There is a need of further investigation in this field, especially for the estimation of the optimal type and dose of statins required in each clinical condition of aortic disease.

 

Read out more at: http://www.eurekaselect.com/node/157165/article

Editor’s Choice Article | Statins and the Brain: More than Lipid Lowering Agents?

Journal Name: Current Neuropharmacology

Author(s): Anna Fracassi, Martina Marangoni, Pamela Rosso, Valentina Pallottini, Marco Fioramonti, Silvia Siteni, Marco Segatto*.

Graphical Abstract:

Abstract:

Background: Statins represent a class of medications widely prescribed to efficiently treat dyslipidemia. These drugs inhibit 3-βhydroxy 3β-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A reductase (HMGR), the rate-limiting enzyme of mevalonate (MVA) pathway. Besides cholesterol, MVA pathway leads to the production of several other compounds, which are essential in the regulation of a plethora of biological activities, including in the central nervous system. For these reasons, statins are able to induce pleiotropic actions, and acquire increased interest as potential and novel modulators in brain processes, especially during pathological conditions.

Objective: The purpose of this review is to summarize and examine the current knowledge about pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of statins in the brain. In addition, effects of statin on brain diseases are discussed providing the most up-to-date information.

Methods: Relevant scientific information was identified from PubMed database using the following keywords: statins and brain, central nervous system, neurological diseases, neurodegeneration, brain tumors, mood, stroke.

Results: 315 scientific articles were selected and analyzed for the writing of this review article. Several papers highlighted that statin treatment is effective in preventing or ameliorating the symptomatology of a number of brain pathologies. However, other studies failed to demonstrate a neuroprotective effect.

Conclusion: Even though considerable research studies suggest pivotal functional outcomes induced by statin therapy, additional investigation is required to better determine the pharmacological effectiveness of statins in the brain, and support their clinical use in the management of different neuropathologies.

 

 

Read out more at: http://www.eurekaselect.com/153651/article

Editor’s Choice – Cardiovascular Pharmacogenomics – Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine

Journal: Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine

Author(s): Valentina Manzo, Sara Tarallo, Teresa Iannaccone, Maria Costantino, Walter Filippelli, Amelia Filippelli.

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Abstract:

Background: Variability in response to pharmacological treatment is one of the most important issues in the clinical practice at first exclusively attributed to clinical and demographic factors such as age, sex, nutritional status, alcohol abuse, smoking, presence of comorbidities and polypharmacy. Nowadays, it is well known that also genetic factors can modify the outcomes of pharmacological treatments. Polymorphisms in genes encoding molecules involved in both pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics may influence efficacy, tolerability, and safety of medications; thus, the knowledge of these genetic variants may help physicians to individualize and optimize the therapies.

Objective: The main aim of this review is to summarize the current scientific evidence about cardiovascular pharmacogenomics.

Conclusion: Cardiovascular pharmacogenomics is recommended only for some antiplatelet, anticoagulant and antihypercholesterolemic drugs thanks to standardized pharmacogenetic tests that are helpful in preventing thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events. Despite many studies have demonstrated that the application of pharmacogenetics may be useful also to individualize the therapy with other cardiovascular drugs, the paucity of large clinical trials and of cost-effectiveness studies limits the translation of such knowledge into clinical practice.

Editor’s Choice – “Mevalonate Cascade and Neurodevelopmental and Neurodegenerative Diseases: Future Targets for Therapeutic Application”

Journal: Current Molecular Pharmacology

Author(s): Xiaodan Jiao, Niloufar Ashtari, Maryam Rahimi-Balaei, Qi Min Chen, Ilnaz Badbezanchi, Shahla Shojaei, Adel Marzban, Nima Mirzaei, Seunghyuk Chung, Teng Guan, Jiasi Li, Jerry Vriend, Shahram Ejtemaei Mehr, Jiming Kong, Hassan Marzban

Graphical Abstract:

 

Abstract:

The mevalonate cascade is a key metabolic pathway that regulates a variety of cellular functions and is thereby implicated in the pathophysiology of most brain diseases, including neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Emerging lines of evidence suggest that statins and Rho GTPase inhibitors are efficacious and have advantageous properties in treatment of different pathologic conditions that are relevant to the central nervous system. Beyond the original role of statins in lowering cholesterol synthesis, they have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and modulatory effects on signaling pathways. Additionally, Rho GTPase inhibitors and statins share the mevalonate pathway as a common target of their therapeutic actions. In this review, we discuss potential mechanisms through which these drugs, via their role in the mevalonate pathway, exert their neuroprotective effects in neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders.

Read more here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/138465

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