New eBook Announcement | Stress Response And Immunity: Links And Trade Offs

 

9789811437175-1

Editor: “Nadia Danilova”

 

All living organisms face two major challenges: to adjust to constantly changing environment and to protect themselves from pathogens. How organisms integrate responses to these challenges is the subject of this book. Cellular machinery can function properly only in a narrow range of condition. The same is true for multicellular organisms. When conditions deviate from the acceptable range, that creates stress and requires change. Physical stress can be caused by starvation, heat, cold, irradiation, and other factors. In addition, higher animals can experience mental stress caused by fear, neglect, isolation etc. Stress response is a set of measures that preserve homeostasis in the face of environmental changes. Pathogens are another challenge for most life forms. Viruses and mobile genetic elements infect all organisms. Multicellular organisms can also be infected by bacterial and eukaryotic pathogens. These subjects are presented in the first two chapters of the book.

The next section presents the elaborate mechanisms of stress and immune responses in bacteria and archaea. A common response to stress in prokaryotes includes, among other means, switching to an alternative transcriptional mode. Prokaryotic immunodefense mechanisms are built on two strategies that are also conserved in eukaryotes. One is innate immunity based on genetically encoded molecules/receptors. The other — adaptive immunity is based on unique molecules/receptors that are created de novo in response to infection.

Eukaryotic stress response is discussed next. Global inhibition of translation, called integrated stress response, is a common reaction to many stresses in eukaryotic cells. In multicellular organisms, most individual cells have autonomous immunodefense mechanisms which function in collaboration with stress response. Some stress responses can participate in immunodefense. A notable example is unfolded protein response. It cleanses the cell of misfolded proteins plus also targets viral proteins because of their difference from cellular proteins. In animals, cellular stress response can trigger cytokine production and systemic response, which includes inflammation and engagement of specialised immune systems. Even subtle changes in homeostasis can activate such a response. The incredible sensitivity of cellular machinery to changes has a dark side; stress and ensuing immune mechanisms such as inflammation and complement can be induced without infection or substantial injury and lead to pathology.

In complex organisms with specialised immune systems, discussed next, the relationship between stress and immunity becomes more complex and sometimes antagonistic. Mental stress can cause activation of immune mechanisms, which, in turn, can affect the brain’s functioning, and behavior. In the recent decade, science has discovered the paramount importance of interaction of all levels of stress response with immunity in the etiology of many human diseases from atherosclerosis to Alzheimer’s. Read out the full version here 

 

 

Nadia Danilova
Department of Molecular,
Cell & Developmental Biology,
University of California, Los Angeles CA,
USA

 

Brand New Issue: Inflammation & Allergy-Drug Targets

  • Inflammaging in Skin and Other Tissues – The Roles of Complement System and Macrophage
Author(s): Yong Zhuang and John Lyga
Pages 153-161 (9)
Abstract:

Inflammaging refers to a continuous, low-grade inflammation associated with aging. Such chronic inflammatory response could build up with time and gradually causes tissue damage. It is considered as one of the driving forces for many age-related diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and skin aging. There is mounting evidence that indicates aging is driven by the pro-inflammatory cytokines and substances produced by our body’s innate immune system. The macrophage and complement system, two important components of innate immune system, have attracted more and more attention since they appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammaging-associated diseases, such as AMD and atherosclerosis. This paper will review what we know about these two innate immune systems in the pathogenesis of AMD, atherosclerosis and skin aging.
Affiliation:

Avon Global R&D, 1 Avon Place, Suffern, NY, 10901, USA.
  • Acne Vulgaris: an Inflammatory Disease Even Before the Onset of Clinical Lesions
Author(s): Marco Alexandre Rocha, Caroline Sousa Costa and Edileia Bagatin
Pages 162-167 (6)
Abstract:

Acne is a chronic self-limited disease, which affects mostly teenagers, without gender difference. In recent years, the incidence has increased in female adults. The factors involved in this epidemiological observation are still under discussion in the literature.Clinically, acne is characterized by different types of lesions. The disease affects the regions rich in sebaceous glands (face, chest and upper back). The clinical lesions are: open and closed comedones, erythematous papules, pustules, nodules and different types of scars. Taking into consideration the general concept of inflammation (redness, pain, heat and loss of function), acne is traditionally classified as non-inflammatory (open and closed comedones) and inflammatory (other primary lesions). With the knowledge advancement this concept seems to be wrong and therefore acne would be an inflammatory disease even before the onset of their clinical lesions.

Affiliation:

Escola Paulista de Medicina — Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM-Unifesp), Brazil.
  • Effect of Botanicals on Inflammation and Skin Aging: Analyzing the Evidence
Author(s): Amanda Suggs, Patricia Oyetakin-White and Elma D. Baron
Pages 168-176 (9)
Abstract:

The skin and its immune system manifest a decline in physiologic function as it undergoes aging. External insults such as ultraviolet light exposure cause inflammation, which may enhance skin aging even further leading to cancer and signs of photoaging. There is a potential role for botanicals as an adjunct modality in the prevention of skin aging. Numerous over-the-counter anti-aging products are commercially available, many of which boast unverified claims to reduce stress, inflammation and correct signs of aging. In this article we reviewed the scientific literature for data on frequently published “anti-inflammaging” additives such as vitamins A, C and E and green tea. We also analyzed the evidence available on five promising ingredients commonly found in anti-aging products, namely, argan oil, rosemary, pomegranate, Coenzyme Q10, and Coffeeberry. Though there may be an increasing amount of scientific data on a few of these novel botanicals, in general, there remains a lack of clinical data to support the anti-aging claims made.
Affiliation:

Department of Dermatology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center 11100 Euclid Avenue, Lakeside 3500, Mailstop 5028, Cleveland, OH 44106-5028, USA.
  • Brain-Skin Connection: Stress, Inflammation and Skin Aging
Author(s): Ying Chen and John Lyga
Pages 177-190 (14)
Abstract:

The intricate relationship between stress and skin conditions has been documented since ancient times. Recent clinical observations also link psychological stress to the onset or aggravation of multiple skin diseases. However, the exact underlying mechanisms have only been studied and partially revealed in the past 20 years or so. In this review, the authors will discuss the recent discoveries in the field of “Brain-Skin Connection”, summarizing findings from the overlapping fields of psychology, endocrinology, skin neurobiology, skin inflammation, immunology, and pharmacology.
Affiliation:

Global R&D, Avon Products. 1 Avon Place, Suffern, NY 10901, USA.
  • Biological Treatments for SAPHO Syndrome: An Update
Author(s): Davide Firinu, Giuseppe Murgia, Maria Maddalena Lorrai, Maria Pina Barca, Maria Monica Peralta, Paolo Emilio Manconi and Stefano R. del Giacco
Pages 199-205 (7)
Abstract:

Synovitis, Acne, Pustulosis, Hyperostosis and Osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome is a rare and often unrecognized disease with prominent inflammatory cutaneous and articular manifestations. Since the identification of the syndrome many immunosuppressive drugs have been used for the management of SAPHO, with variable results. The use of anti- TNF-α agents as a therapeutic option for SAPHO cases unresponsive or refractory to conventional drugs, demonstrated their efficacy for bone, skin and joints manifestations. TNF-α is a pro-inflammatory cytokine and pivotal regulator of other cytokines, including IL-1 β , IL-6 and IL-8, involved in inflammation, acute-phase response induction and chemotaxis. IL-1 inhibition strategies with Anakinra have proven their efficacy as first and second line treatment. We herein review the literature concerning the use of biological drugs in patients with SAPHO syndrome. In addition, we describe for the first time the use of Ustekinumab, an antibody against the p40 subunit of IL-12 and IL-23, after failure of multiple drugs including anti-TNF-α and Anakinra. This anti-IL12/IL23 agent could be a promising therapeutic option, also considering the opportunity to interfere with the IL23/TH17 pathway, which we recently found disturbed. Furthermore, a rationale emerges for the use of the new anti-IL-1 antagonists or the IL-17 blockade, in particular for the most difficult-to-treat SAPHO cases.
Affiliation:

Department of Medical Sciences “M. Aresu”, Unit of Internal Medicine, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of Cagliari, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria, SS 554-Bivio Sestu, I-09042 Monserrato (CA), Italy.
  • Cardiac and Muscular Involvement in Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies: Noninvasive Diagnostic Assessment and the Role of Cardiovascular and Skeletal Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Author(s): Sophie Mavrogeni, Petros P. Sfikakis, Theodoros Dimitroulas, Genovefa Kolovou and George D. Kitas
Pages 206-216 (11)
Abstract:

Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are rare autoimmune diseases and include dermatomyositis, polymyositis, necrotizing myopathy and inclusion body myositis; they are characterized by inflammation of skeletal muscle and other internal organs and may potentially lead to irreversible damage and death. Only a small percentage of IIM has clinically overt cardiac disease; however, heart involvement is one of the leading causes of death and therefore, early detection remains a challenge.Biochemical markers and non-invasive methods such as the electrocardiogram and echocardiography have a role in diagnosis, but lack sensitivity in identifying patients with early, sublinical cardiac abnormalities. Endomyocardial and skeletal muscle biopsies are very useful, but invasive techniques and cannot be used for routine follow-up. Cardiac and skeletal magnetic resonance imaging, due to their capability to perform tissue characterization, has emerged as novel techniques for the early detection and follow-up of myocardial and skeletal muscle tissue changes (oedema, inflammation, fibrosis) in IIM. However, the clinical implications of using these approaches and their cost /benefit ratio require further evaluation.

Affiliation:

Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, 50 Esperou Street, 175-61 P.Faliro, Athens, Greece.
For details, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/122799/issue/3
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