EDITOR’S CHOICE – The Real Impact of Target Therapy in Breast Cancer Patients

Journal: Current Cancer Drug Targets

Author(s): Sebastiano Bordonaro, Massimiliano Berretta, Antonino Carmelo Tralongo, Silvia Clementi, Brigida Stanzione, Paolo Tralongo*.

Graphical Abstract:



Over the last 15 years, we have seen a huge expansion of the development of drugs directed against biomolecular targets within breast cancer cells. The over-expression of certain receptors (ER, PgR, HER-2, VEGF-R), as well as alteration of several intracellular signal transduction pathways (the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway, MEK-MAPK pathway, loss of PTEN, etc …) has a great impact on the likelihood of recurrence and progression of the disease, influencing the natural history of breast cancer. The recent biomolecular classification of breast cancer (Luminal A / B, HER2- driven, Basal Like) allowed finally to identify specific treatments against molecular target to associate or not to traditional chemotherapy, and to use in relation to the prognosis of the disease. In the following paragraphs, we will set out the major targeted drug that have received indications in breast cancer, both in the localized and in advanced disease, referring to the specific target (hormonal receptors, HER2, VEGF, m-TOR, PARP etc …).

Read more here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/149941/article



EDITOR’S CHOICE – Current Delivery Strategies to Improve the Target of Cell Penetrating Peptides Used for Tumor-Related Therapeutics

Journal: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Author(s): Fang Zhang, Dandan Yang, Shanshan Jiang, Lei Wu, Li Qin, Huiyang He, Peng Zhang*


Cell Penetrating Peptides (CPPs) equipped with a high penetrating ability are used as a promising tool to gain access to the cell interior, cross the cell membrane and deliver bioactive small or macromolecular cargos into the cytoplasm or nucleus. The superiority of wide range of applications, high transport efficiency and low biological toxicity make them particularly desirable in laboratory or clinical studies. Previous studies have shown that their non-selectivity and reaction with proteins in plasma hamper their application for tumor therapy, which might adversely affect the treatment effect and even induce some side effects. However, several recent studies have found that various kinds of modifiers of CPPs can effectively increase the target selectivity, reduce cytotoxicity to normal cells and produce multiple antitumor functions due to the different cleavable bonds which are sensitive to the tumor microenvironment or other novel designs. Apparently, these designs of ‘smart’ CPPs appear to be promising in the field of antitumor drug delivery. Here, we review these current improved approaches which mainly involve strategies of physical, chemical as well as biological pathways and we also explain the possible uptake mechanisms of direct penetration, internalization and escape which have been discussed in some publications with specific attention. In addition, some possible problems needed to be considered in the process of improving CPPs are discussed at the end of this review. This study aims to present an overview of the latest progress of CPPs, and provides a comprehensive theoretical background and reference guidance for future laboratory research and clinical application.

Read more here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/154537/article




MRMC-Articles-17 -18-2017-Gildardo Rivera

To access the article, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/150897

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