Editors Choice Article | Small Animal Models for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B, and Tuberculosis: Proceedings of an NIAID Workshop

Journal Name: Current HIV Research

Author(s): Ramesh Akkina, Daniel L. Barber, Moses T. Bility, Karl-Dimiter Bissig, Benjamin J. Burwitz, Katrin Eichelberg, Janice J. Endsley, J. Victor Garcia, Richard Hafner, Petros C. Karakousis, Brent E. Korba, Rajen Koshy, Chris Lambros, Stephan Menne, Eric L. Nuermberger, Alexander Ploss, Brendan K. Podell, Larisa Y. Poluektova, Brigitte E. Sanders-Beer*, Selvakumar Subbian, Angela Wahl.




Graphical Abstract:





The main advantage of animal models of infectious diseases over in vitro studies is the gain in the understanding of the complex dynamics between the immune system and the pathogen. While small animal models have practical advantages over large animal models, it is crucial to be aware of their limitations. Although the small animal model at least needs to be susceptible to the pathogen under study to obtain meaningful data, key elements of pathogenesis should also be reflected when compared to humans. Welldesigned small animal models for HIV, hepatitis viruses and tuberculosis require, additionally, a thorough understanding of the similarities and differences in the immune responses between humans and small animals and should incorporate that knowledge into the goals of the study. To discuss these considerations, the NIAID hosted a workshop on ‘Small Animal Models for HIV, Hepatitis B, and Tuberculosis’ on May 30, 2019. Highlights of the workshop are outlined below.


To read out more, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/177698/article

Press Release | New book series aims to provide frontier reviews on anti-infective agents


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Frontiers in Anti-Infective Agents is a book series that focuses on antibiotics and vaccines, both current and new.

The series is essential reading for general readers, healthcare professionals, researchers and academicians actively involved in research on infectious diseases and anti-infective therapeutic drugs.

The first volume is a comprehensive documentation on major infectious diseases from tropical countries which pose a serious threat to global healthcare programs. These include diseases such as tuberculosis, AIDS, leishmaniasis (kala-azar), elephantiasis, malaria, leprosy, various fungal disorders and emergent viral diseases. Due to the widespread use of antibiotics, there is an emergence of drug resistant pathogens in many regions. Hence, there is a need to search for novel, cost-effective bioactive compounds that demonstrate high efficacy and low toxicity in human cells from unexplored ecosystems to combat emerging drug resistant pathogens. Chapters written for this volume focus on the pathogenesis and etiology of each of the mentioned diseases, updated WHO reports wherever applicable, conventional drugs and their pharmacokinetics as well as new approaches to develop anti-infective agents.

The authors also present a detailed report on multi-drug resistant pathogens (‘superbugs’) and new measures being taken up to eradicate them. Information about new antimicrobials (bioactive peptides and silk protein sericin) and the approaches taken by scientists and healthcare professionals for successful targeting of these molecules for human medicine. For more information, please visit: https://benthambooks.com/book/9789811432736/https://benthambooks.com/book/9789811432736/

About The Editors:

Dr. K. Tamreihao completed his PhD and Master of Science from the Department of Biochemistry, Manipur University, India. He is working as PDF in a project sponsored by Department of Biotechnology, Government of India. His research interest lies in the area of plant growth promotion by actinobacteria and feather degradation by keratinolytic actinobacteria and the biofertilizing potential of degraded feathers.

Dr Saikat Mukherjee completed his M.Sc (Biotechnology) from Calcutta University and PhD from CSIR- Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata. He has participated in postdoctoral research programs in University of Geneva, Switzerland and Manipur University, India. His research expertise is in mitochondrial bioenergetics and purification of protein complexes from protozoal, human, bacterial and algal systems.

Prof. Debananda S. Ningthoujam earned his Masters of Science (Life Sciences) from Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi and PhD (Environmental Biotechnology) from NEERI, Nagpur. He is currently working as a Professor of Biochemistry at the university of Manipur. Prof. Ningthoujam is a life member of several scientific society including AMI, BRSI, SBC, ASM and ISCA. He is actively researching actinomycete biology and biotechnology and has several completed and ongoing projects to his credit. Six new actinomycete species have been reported from his lab. Prof. Ningthoujam has over 25 years of teaching experience and five research scholars have earned their PhDs under his mentorship. He has also supervised several PDF candidates.

READ FULL PRESS RELEASE TO FIND OUT MORE: https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-12/bsp-nbs122319.php

Podcast | In Silico Appraisal, Synthesis, Antibacterial Screening and DNA Cleavage for 1,2,5-thiadiazole Derivative

Author(s): Suraj N. Mali*, Sudhir Sawant, Hemchandra K. Chaudhari*, Mustapha C. Mandewale


Graphical Abstract:



Background: Thiadiazole not only acts as “hydrogen binding domain” and “two-electron donor system” but also as constrained pharmacophore.

Methods: The maleate salt of 2-((2-hydroxy-3-((4-morpholino-1, 2,5-thiadiazol-3-yl) oxy) propyl) amino)- 2-methylpropan-1-ol (TML-Hydroxy)(4) has been synthesized. This methodology involves preparation of 4-morpholino-1, 2,5-thiadiazol-3-ol by hydroxylation of 4-(4-chloro-1, 2,5-thiadiazol-3-yl) morpholine followed by condensation with 2-(chloromethyl) oxirane to afford 4-(4-(oxiran-2-ylmethoxy)-1,2,5-thiadiazol- 3-yl) morpholine. Oxirane ring of this compound was opened by treating with 2-amino-2-methyl propan-1- ol to afford the target compound TML-Hydroxy. Structures of the synthesized compounds have been elucidated by NMR, MASS, FTIR spectroscopy.

Results: The DSC study clearly showed that the compound 4-maleate salt is crystalline in nature. In vitro antibacterial inhibition and little potential for DNA cleavage of the compound 4 were explored. We extended our study to explore the inhibition mechanism by conducting molecular docking, ADMET and molecular dynamics analysis by using Schrödinger. The molecular docking for compound 4 showed better interactions with target 3IVX with docking score of -8.508 kcal/mol with respect to standard ciprofloxacin (docking score= -3.879 kcal/mol). TML-Hydroxy was obtained in silico as non-carcinogenic and non-AMES toxic with good percent human oral absorption profile (69.639%). TML-Hydroxy showed the moderate inhibition against Mycobacteria tuberculosis with MIC 25.00 μg/mL as well as moderate inhibition against S. aureus, Bacillus sps, K. Pneumoniae and E. coli species.

Conclusion: In view of the importance of the 1,2,5-thiadiazole moiety involved, this study would pave the way for future development of more effective analogs for applications in medicinal field. For article details, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/169670/article


EDITOR’S CHOICE – Diagnosis and Treatment of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis – Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews

Journal: Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews

Author(s): Rafael Laniado-Laborin

Graphical Abstract:



Background: For decades there were no significant advances in the development of diagnostic procedures for drug resistant TB (DR-TB), or the availability of new, effective drugs specifically developed for DR-TB. Now, we have witnessed during the last decade, the arrival of several new diagnostic techniques and new drugs, already available for clinical use. This review aims to critically analyze evidence-based recommendations on the most recent developments in the diagnosis and treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR.TB).

Methods: PubMed search for papers describing innovative diagnostic techniques and newer drugs and treatment regimens for MDR-TB. All World Health Organization (WHO) evidence-based guidelines on the subject of diagnostic techniques and new drugs and treatment regimens were also reviewed.

Results: 21 papers, 10 WHO guidelines and one Global Tuberculosis Report (2016) were included in the review. Nineteen were original papers on diagnostic techniques or newer drugs and 2 were editorials on the global burden of MDR-TB. One WHO global report dealt with the burden of MDRTB, 6 guidelines had evidence-based recommendations on newer diagnostic techniques for MDR-TB and 4 had evidence based recommendations on new drugs and treatment regimens for MDR-TB.

Conclusion: The findings of this review confirm that genotypic diagnostic methods have revolutionized the diagnosis of MDR-TB, from a process that used to take months to one that now takes just a few hours. Also, for the first time in more than 50 years, two new antituberculosis drugs, delamanid and bedaquiline, are now added to the armamentarium, a greatly needed alternative for the treatment of MDR-TB.

To access the article, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/155876



Highlighted Article Flyer for the journal “Medicinal Chemistry”

MC-Articles-13 -8-2017-Chunxia Chen


How To Stay At Bay From Tuberculosis

Today is World Tuberculosis Day. Tuberculosis or TB is a deadly bacterial infection that has been attacking humans for thousands of years. TB bacteria enters the bloodstream through the lymph nodes and can affect any organ of the body. Its favorite organ to attack are the lungs. Despite years of research and treatments discovered, the battle with TB has still not ended. This resilient infection keeps reemerging and, at worse, snatching away lives.


What we can do to keep at bay from tuberculosis? Here are a few crucial tips:

  1. TB is contagious. Stay away from people infected by TB bacteria, especially in closed places.
  2. Use a mask to keep safe from inhaling it.
  3. If you have someone infected around you, guide them to take medical help.
  4. You may try a vaccine called BCG but it is not very effective for adults.

Bentham Science is eager to find a proper cure and eliminator for TB bacteria. Following are a few of the most vital research articles that shed light on TB, the causes and possible cures:

Tuberculosis: a therapeutically neglected disease

Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis- Its Management and Control

New Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy for Tuberculosis!

On World Tuberculosis Day 2016, read our research article on tuberculosis from the journal Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews

Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) has been a widespread infectious disease since ancient times and remains a worldwide major health problem. TB morbidity with 8 to 9 million active cases per year and 1.3 deaths annually represent the largest number of incidences and of human deaths attributable to a single bacterial agent. Its causal agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis is able to survive in a latent state in infected individuals, thereby serving as a reservoir, waiting for the reactivation that usually occurs in immune-suppressed individuals, such as HIV patients. According to World Health Organization estimation, 2 billion people, almost one-third of the world’s population, are believed to be latently infected. An additional significant factor is the continued emergence of new multidrug resistant strains often associated to poor compliance due to the long, complex, toxic and expensive treatment. Thus, new anti-TB drugs and better therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. New drug candidates should short the standard regimens and being effective against drug resistant strains. In recent years, an emphasized research activity in the development of new TB drugs has being produced. Some compounds are presently in clinical development, while others are being investigated pre-clinically. The immune system is a critical factor for containment and cure of mycobacterial infection. Augmentation of protective immunity or decreasing the immune modulatory responses during late disease can be of value in the TB treatment. Thus, the use of immunotherapy with cytokines or bacterial derivatives as an adjunct to drug treatment may improve success rates for treatment of MDR-TB and shorten treatment time for drug-sensitive TB.

The present review concentrates to describe the most promising new drugs against TB which are now in clinical trials, as well as the immunotherapeutic assays performed in humans.

Brand New eBook Podcast!!

Current Diagnosis of infant Tuberculosis Infection by Paulo Antas

Watch the Podcast here: http://youtu.be/JyfSHk_7xkc

eBook: “Current Diagnosis of infant Tuberculosis Infection”

Author: Paulo R. Z. Antas

One of the most extraordinary characteristics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is its capacity to remain within the host’s tissues for a long period of time. There is an enormous reservoir of persons latently infected with tuberculosis (LTBI) estimated at about a third of the world’s population.

For more information on the eBook, visit: http://bit.ly/1ziPnwc

Browse eBooks by subject here: http://bit.ly/1t3MNpK

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