Editors choice: Benefits of Coffee Consumption for Human Health: An Overview

Author(s):Jéssica Petrine Castro Pereira*Fernanda Aparecida Castro Pereira and Carlos José Pimenta

Background: Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages worldwide and is popular for its characteristic flavor and rich organoleptic properties.

Aim: Based on published articles, the aims of this review are i) study the association between coffee consumption and benefits to human health; ii) the effects of coffee consumption on some pathologies; and iii) provide a description of coffee’s bioactive compounds.

Discussion: Coffee presents bioactive compounds, which include phenolic compounds, especially chlorogenic acid (caffeoylquinic acid), trigonelline, and diterpenes, such as cafestol and kahweol. These compounds are related to the beneficial effects for human health, including high antioxidant activity, antimutagenic activity, hepatoprotective action, reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases, decreased incidence of inflammatory diseases, reduced menopausal symptoms, and others. Coffee’s bioactive compounds are caffeine, chlorogenic acid, trigonelline, cafestol and kahweol, which are closely related to coffee’s beneficial effects.

Conclusion: The present review clarified that the benefits of moderate coffee consumption outweigh the associated risks.

Read more: http://bit.ly/3TVR51G

Open Access Articles – Pioglitazone Therapy and Fractures: Systematic Review and Meta- Analysis

Author(s): Velichka Pavlova*, Elena Filipova, Katya Uzunova, Krassimir Kalinov, Toni Vekov.

Graphical Abstract:

Abstract:

Introduction: Thiazolidinediones are a group of synthetic medications used in type 2 diabetes treatment. Among available thiazolidinediones, pioglitazone is gaining increased attention due to its lower cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus sufferers and seems a promising future therapy. Accumulating evidence suggests that diabetic patients may exert bone fractures due to such treatments. Simultaneously, the female population is thought to be at greater risk. Still, the safety outcomes of pioglitazone treatment especially in terms of fractures are questionable and need to be clarified.

Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, PsyInfo, eLIBRARY.ru electronic databases and clinical trial registries for studies reporting an association between pioglitazone and bone fractures in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients published before Feb 15, 2016. Among 1536 sources that were initially identified, six studies including 3172 patients proved relevant for further analysis.

Result: Pooled analysis of the included studies demonstrated that after treatment with pioglitazone patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus had no significant increase in fracture risk [odds ratio (OR): 1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82 to 1.71, p=0.38] compared to other antidiabetic drugs or placebo. Additionally, no association was found between the risk of fractures and pioglitazone therapy duration. The gender of the patients involved was not relevant to the risk of fractures, too.

Conclusion: Pioglitazone treatment in diabetic patients does not increase the incidence of bone fractures. Moreover, there is no significant association between patients’ fractures, their gender and the period of exposure to pioglitazone. Additional longitudinal studies need to be undertaken to obtain more detailed information on bone fragility and pioglitazone therapy.

 

 

For more details, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/161486

Highlighted Article – Default Mode Network Connectivity and Related White Matter Disruption in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Concurrent with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment – Current Alzheimer Research

CAR-Articles_14-Zhanjun Zhang

To access this article, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/151651

Press Release for EurekAlert! Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases

This article by Dr. Jordan A. McKenzie et al. is published in Current Aging Science, Volume 10, Issue 3, 2017

In the journal Current Aging Science, a research team has reviewed modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. The reviewers focus on the possible role of neuroinflammation (inflammation of the nervous tissue) in neurodegenerative disease mechanisms. Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease are among the most common causes of dementia, and increasingly contribute to morbidity and mortality worldwide. A common hallmark of these two diseases is neuroinflammation, which is initially triggered by the presence of pathological molecular structures associated with these disorders. Chronic neuroinflammation is sustained by persistent activation of the non-neuronal glial cells in the brain, which results in damage or death of neighboring cells, including neurons and glial cells themselves. Persistent neuroinflammation of the brain is hypothesized to contribute to the neurodegeneration observed in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.

The reviewers note four modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases: physical inactivity, vascular disease-related conditions, obesity and type two diabetes mellitus. These modifiable risk factors contribute to neuroinflammation through specific mechanisms that are directly linked to the pathologies of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. These risk factors are deemed modifiable as their occurrence in the general population can be reduced, or avoided by individuals, through various lifestyle changes, such as improved diet, regular exercise and effective treatment of vascular disease-related conditions such as high blood pressure. This review highlights that the control of the modifiable risk factors is a valid approach for managing the increased incidence of both Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. In addition, the neuroinflammatory mechanisms common to Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases are described, which may link the above four common modifiable risk factors with both of these neurodegenerative diseases. A better understanding of the molecular mechanism of neuroinflammation could help identify new therapeutic targets for combating neurodegenerative diseases.

View the article here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/150884

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