Most Accessed Article – Regulatory Role of Heat Shock Proteins in the Pathogenesis of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes – Current Immunology Reviews

Journal: Current Immunology Reviews

Author(s): Christiane Habich, Henrike Sell, Volker Burkart

Graphical Abstract:

Abstract:

Diabetes is a severe metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia due to defects in insulin secretion and/or insulin action. Over the past decades, a continuous rise of the incidence of diabetes is observed, leading to epidemic dimensions of the disease in large parts of the western world. Depending on the type of diabetes, (auto-)immune processes (type 1 diabetes) or metabolic disorders (type 2 diabetes) dominate the pathogenesis of the disease. Therefore, investigations aiming at the identification of disease mechanisms and the development of preventive and therapeutic approaches, focus on the identification of common regulators of both immunologic and metabolic pathways involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes. So far, extensive research, employing clinical and experimental approaches demonstrate a central role of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in diabetes development. In type 1 diabetes intracellular HSPs located in the beta cell can provide efficient protection against the deleterious effects of autoimmune effector mechanisms whereas extracellular HSPs can stimulate the release of beta cell damaging mediators from innate immune cells or even contribute to the induction of immune reactivity against beta cell specific antigens. In type 2 diabetes HSPs are involved in the control of various immunologic and metabolic processes contributing to the induction and maintenance of low-grade, subclinical inflammation associated with the development of diabetes and related disorders such obesity and insulin resistance. The results of current research on the pathogenesis of diabetes point to HSPs and HSP-dependent immunologic and metabolic pathways as promising targets for strategies to prevent or cure diabetes and its sequelae.

 

To access the article, please visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/152952

 

 

Which is Healthier – Frying or Grilling

This World Food Day, we turn our focus onto a very important debate that has been going on for long but changing little in practice. The debate is about which cooking method is better for health, grilling or frying. Both the methods are popularly used and liked by masses. Grilling is done by placing food (meat or vegetables) on a wire grill kept over or under a source of heat. The food gets cooked through the thermal radiation emitted by the heat source and transmitted by the grill.

Vegetables background

Frying, on the other hand, is done in a frying pan or utensil containing oil or fat. The food is placed in the oil, either shallow or deep, and cooked over a heat source. The temperature of the oil rises extremely high and conducts the heat into the food to be cooked. Frying makes the food crispy, hot and enhances the taste strongly. But does it compromise the nutrition of the food?

Yes. Frying causes the essential vitamins and other nutrients in the food to be destroyed due to high temperature. Further, it adds unhealthy fat into the food as the oil penetrates and increases the cholesterol levels. This is the bad cholesterol that chokes blood vessels, increasing the risk of stroke, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The visible ill effects include weight increase and lethargy in cases.

Grilling, also enhances taste but does not damage the nutrition in food. With it the cholesterol level in foods usually drops instead of rising. The moisture and essential vitamins and minerals are retained and add value to what we are consuming. The grilled food is  more easily digested and does not store in the body as unwanted fat.

It’s high time we change our cooking methods and keep ourselves healthy for long.

Podcast: Long-term Lifestyle-modification Programs For Overweight And Obesity Management In The Arab States

Author(s): Dima Kreidieh, Leila Itani, Germine El Kassas, Dana El Masri, Simona Calugi, Riccardo Dalle Grave, Marwan El Ghoch

For article details, visit: http://www.eurekaselect.com/153397/article

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Testimonial by Dr. Kimberley Larisa Way!

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Dr. Kimberley Larisa Way

Faculty of Health Sciences, Lidcombe. Charles Perkins Centre,

Camperdown, University of Sydney NSW 2006, Australia 

Contributed Article: The Effect of Exercise on Vascular Function and Stiffness in Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Testimonial by Dr. R. R.Rajalaxmia!

Dr. R- R-Rajalaxmia

Dr. R. R.Rajalaxmia

Department of CSE,

Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, Erode,

TamilNadu, India

Contributed Article: A Hybrid Binary Cuckoo Search and Genetic Algorithm for Feature Selection in Type-2 Diabetes

Testimonial by Dr. D. S. Pushparani!

Dr Ds

Dr. D. S. Pushparani

Department of Biochemistry, SRM Dental College,

Ramapuram, Chennai-600089, India

Contributed Article: Role of Zinc and Lysosomal Enzymes in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Periodontitis

Open Access Plus ::: Recent Patents on Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery

Circulatory Estrogen Level Protects Against Breast Cancer in Obese Women
Zsuzsanna Suba

Abstract: The use of TRAIL/APO2L and monoclonal antibodies targeting TRAIL receptors for cancer therapy holds great promise, due to their ability to restore cancer cell sensitivity to apoptosis in association with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs in a large variety of tumors. TRAIL-induced cell death is tightly regulated right from the membrane and at the DISC (Death-Inducing Signaling Complex) level. The following patent and literature review aims to present and highlight recent findings of the deadly discussion that determines tumor cell fate upon TRAIL engagement.

View Abstract Download Free

 

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Regulating TRAIL Receptor-Induced Cell Death at the Membrane: A Deadly Discussion
Sarah Shirley, Alexandre Morizot and Olivier Micheau

Abstract: Literary data suggest apparently ambiguous interaction between menopausal status and obesity-associated breast cancer risk based on the principle of the carcinogenic capacity of estrogen. Before menopause, breast cancer incidence is relatively low and adiposity is erroneously regarded as a protective factor against this tumor conferred by the obesity associated defective estrogen-synthesis. By contrast, in postmenopausal cases, obesity presents a strong risk factor for breast cancer being mistakenly attributed to the presumed excessive estrogen-production of their adipose-tissue mass. Obesity is associated with dysmetabolism and endangers the healthy equilibrium of sexual hormone-production and regular menstrual cycles in women, which are the prerequisites not only for reproductive capacity but also for somatic health…

View Abstract Download Free

Oral Insulin. A Reality of the future

Ever since man started popping pills for various ailments, pharmaceutical companies’ Holy Grail has been the insulin pill – a pill which will replace the pinpricks that diabetics have begun to consider a part and parcel of their life. Sadly, the plan was abandoned around 80 years ago when pharma companies decided that it just wasn’t a viable option. However, the race is back on with two companies leading the pack – a tiny Israeli pharma company called Oramed Pharmaceuticals Inc and Danish pharma giant Novo Nordisk, incidentally the world’s largest seller of insulin – both believing that the pill is a viable option.Image

The pill, when it comes will surely revolutionise the pharma industry, almost as much as the oral contraceptive pill did in the 60s and Lipitor (a blood cholesterol lowering drug) and Viagra did in the 90s. Never before has the market been so fertile, considering there are 370 million diabetics in the world. And Novo Nordisk is ready to take the plunge with the company announcing that it will spend up to $3.65 billion till 2020 to develop and produce six different diabetes pills. The underdog isn’t standing still though; Oramed’s program is a little ahead of Novo’s with patients enrolling for Phase II clinical trials. The mastermind behind Oramed’s oral insulin is the CEO’s mother Miriam Kidron who’s done the groundwork with years of research on the diabetes.  ‘She’s the chief scientist. I just went for the ride to do the business side,’ said Oramed CEO Nadav Kidron told Reuters.

Why has previous alternative insulin delivery systems failed?

The concept of the pill has been around since the 1930s but it fizzled out when it was discovered that insulin, being a protein made of amino acids would be destroyed by the digestive system. The focus on the oral insulin is back on because of the huge number of type 2 diabetics in the world, accounting for around 90-95% of the numbers.  But the wait is going to be long, especially the regulatory approval and will need large scale trials to prove their efficacy and safety. Except injections, all other methods of insulin delivery have been rejected till now including Pfizer Inc’s inhaled insulin product.

Why is the pill so attractive?

Dr Rajiv Kovel, a diabetelogist explains, ‘Oral Insulin holds promise since if it gets absorbed from gastrointestinal tract then it would undergo first pass metabolism through the liver like natural insulin. When we inject insulin into subcutaneous tissue it is not the physiological site for injection. Oral insulin would increase the levels of insulin in portal system.’

While insulin is naturally produced in the pancreas and then goes to the liver, injected insulin circulates throughout the body before it gets there. The main attractiveness of an insulin pill, if it works, is that any absorbed insulin would go directly to the liver from the digestive tract.

To counter the digestive system’s natural ability to break down insulin, both companies are looking to use protective coating and molecular modifications to make sure that enough insulin gets absorbed to maintain blood sugar levels.  Dr Kovil adds, ‘If one could have insulin as oral pills since one need not take injections thereafter, the compliance of patients to therapy would increase drastically.’ (Read: 10 celebrities living with diabetes)

A new dawn for diabetics?

Kidron believes that the pill, if it works, could revolutionise healthcare. ‘If we give insulin earlier on, we’re going to give the pancreas a rest,’ Kidron explained. ‘We could reduce the complications, such as blindness and amputations.’ Dr Kovil agrees, ‘If the bio-availability of oral insulin pills is good then there can be no downside. Preventing the degradation of insulin in gastrointestinal mucosa and thus increasing the levels in intestine is what many pharma companies are aiming at. But one needs to understand that the most important advantage of injectable insulin is small increments and decrements and flexibility it allows to patients and doctors. If oral insulin does not allow flexibility in our therapy then it has no value.’ (Read: Five herbal remedies for diabetes)

 

[Courtesy: health.india.com]