Editor’s Choice – Model Validity in Nanoimmunosafety: Advantages and Disadvantages of In vivo vs In vitro Models, and Human vs Animal Models – Current Bionanotechnology

Journal: Current Bionanotechnology

Author(s): Diana Boraschi, Paola Italiani.

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Abstract:

The thorough understanding of the interaction between nanomaterials and the immune system is the starting point both for nanomaterial exploitation in nanomedicine and for the implementation of an effective regulatory framework concerning nanosafety for human health and the environment. In this context, the use of valid models, in vitro and in vivo, is central for assessing both the positive and the detrimental effects of nanomaterials, thereby predicting their possible risks for human and environmental health. Thus, predicting models are sought that allow us on one side defining hazard posed by nanomaterials, and therefore implementing safety regulation and safe-by-design nanotechnologies, and on the other side exploiting nanomaterials for more effective therapeutic and preventive medical strategies. Here, we consider the advantages and limitation of the current in vitro and in vivo human and animal models, and the appropriateness of their use for assessing the effects of nanomaterials on immunity.

Read more here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/142770

Editor’s Choice – A Review on Advances in Organoborane-Chemistry – Current Organic Synthesis

Journal: Current Organic Synthesis

Author(s): Paranjeet Kaur, Gopal L. Khatik, Surendra Kumar Nayak.

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Abstract:

Background: In the past decades, the hydroboration reaction was serendipitously discovered which occurred by the facile addition of diborane to alkenes and alkynes. Hydroboration reactions produce organoboranes. The organoboranes have marked a new era in the field of organic chemistry because they are versatile chemical intermediates that are readily available to chemists.

Objective: The review focuses on recent advancements in organoborane reagents in asymmetric synthesis. We searched the scientific database using relevant keywords such an asymmetric hydroboration, organoboranes etc. The quality research papers were included in the review which discusses the asymmetric synthesis via organoborane compounds.

Conclusion: The development of organoborane compounds increased remarkably in few years after hydroboration reaction discovered. Later on, new selective hydroboration agents were developed (for example thexylborane, disiamylborane, dipinylborane, 9-borabicyclenonane, and diisopinocamphylborane which have proven valuable in syntheses of organic compounds with new carbon-carbon bonds. H.C Brown and his co-workers established various procedures to synthesize asymmetric compounds with high enantiomeric excess (ee). There are many different types of strategies in the asymmetric syntheses, but asymmetric syntheses via chiral organoborane reagents have proven to be truly general and have been used to achieve reactions resulting in excellent ee. This review focuses on the advancement.

Editor’s Choice – Cardiovascular Pharmacogenomics – Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine

Journal: Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine

Author(s): Valentina Manzo, Sara Tarallo, Teresa Iannaccone, Maria Costantino, Walter Filippelli, Amelia Filippelli.

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Abstract:

Background: Variability in response to pharmacological treatment is one of the most important issues in the clinical practice at first exclusively attributed to clinical and demographic factors such as age, sex, nutritional status, alcohol abuse, smoking, presence of comorbidities and polypharmacy. Nowadays, it is well known that also genetic factors can modify the outcomes of pharmacological treatments. Polymorphisms in genes encoding molecules involved in both pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics may influence efficacy, tolerability, and safety of medications; thus, the knowledge of these genetic variants may help physicians to individualize and optimize the therapies.

Objective: The main aim of this review is to summarize the current scientific evidence about cardiovascular pharmacogenomics.

Conclusion: Cardiovascular pharmacogenomics is recommended only for some antiplatelet, anticoagulant and antihypercholesterolemic drugs thanks to standardized pharmacogenetic tests that are helpful in preventing thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events. Despite many studies have demonstrated that the application of pharmacogenetics may be useful also to individualize the therapy with other cardiovascular drugs, the paucity of large clinical trials and of cost-effectiveness studies limits the translation of such knowledge into clinical practice.

Editor’s Choice – Mesenchymal Stem Cell-derived Extracellular Vesicles for Renal Repair – Current Gene Therapy

Journal: Current Gene Therapy

Author(s): Arash Aghajani Nargesi, Lilach O. Lerman, Alfonso Eirin.

Abstract:

Introduction: Transplantation of autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been shown to attenuate renal injury and dysfunction in several animal models, and its efficacy is currently being tested in clinical trials for patients with renal disease. Accumulating evidence indicates that MSCs release extracellular vesicles (EVs) that deliver genes, microRNAs and proteins to recipient cells, acting as mediators of MSC paracrine actions. In this context, it is critical to characterize the MSC-derived EV cargo to elucidate their potential contribution to renal repair. In recent years, researchers have performed high-throughput sequencing and proteomic analysis to detect and identify genes, microRNAs, and proteins enriched in MSC-derived EVs.

Conclusion: The present review summarizes the current knowledge of the MSC-derived EV secretome to shed light into the mechanisms mediating MSC renal repair, and discusses preclinical and clinical studies testing the efficacy of MSC-derived EVs for treating renal disease.

Editor’s Choice – Psychiatric Polypharmacy, Etiology and Potential Consequences – Current Psychopharmacology

Journal: Current Psychopharmacology

Author(s): Sonali Sarkar.

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Abstract:

Psychiatric polypharmacy is defined as the use of two or more drugs in the treatment of a psychiatric condition. It is widely prevalent in clinical practice. The rationale for polypharmacy is not clear. Etiologic factors are patient demographics (age, gender, race, low socioeconomic status), personality disorder, psychiatric conditions (psychosis, schizophrenia, affective or mood disorders), comorbidities, severity of disease, treatment- refractoriness, prescribing practice, inpatient or outpatient setting, concern for reduction of extra-pyramidal and other sideeffects. Among children and adolescents’ the polypharmacy correlates are age (13 -15 years), male gender, caucasian race, low socio-economic status, medicaid or public insurance, disability, and foster care or child custody outside of biological family. Pediatric polypharmacy is also associated with a diagnosis of behavioral disorder, autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, conduct disorder/ oppositional defiant disorder, personality disorder, violence, tics, psychosis, affective and mood disorder.

 

The concurrent administration of multiple drugs increases the risk of drug interactions and adverse effect including morbidity and mortality. Psychiatric polypharmacy is also associated with cumulative toxicity, poor medication adherence and treatment non-compliance. Thus, psychiatric polypharmacy poses a significant public health problem. However, not all polypharmacy is harmful. Polypharmacy is proven to be beneficial in patients with psychotic, mood or affective disorder, concurrently having dual diagnosis with substance abuse, personality disorder and certain medical conditions including thyroid, pain or seizure disorder. Combination therapy with different class of drugs (antidepressants or antipsychotics) with different mechanism of action have beneficial therapeutic consequences. Therefore, a better understanding of physicians’ rationale for polypharmacy, patient tolerability and effectiveness of prescribing strategy is needed to guide practitioners and to inform the development of evidence based treatment guidelines. Here we review the problem of polypharmacy in psychiatric patients, describe possible etiologic factors, associated consequences and provide recommendations for promoting beneficial polypharmacy and reducing harmful polypharmacy in clinical practice.

Editor’s Choice – Saccharomyces cerevisiae as Cell Factory for the Production of Plant Natural Products – Current Biotechnology

Journal: Current Biotechnology

Author(s): Hilde C. Coumou, Pia D. Petersen, Uffe H. Mortensen.

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Abstract:

Background: Plant natural products (PNPs) play a key role in human health and life quality through the treatment of diseases and as supplements in the food and healthcare industry. These high-value metabolites are traditionally extracted from the natural resource, but ongoing research is exploring the possibilities to construct efficient microbial cell factories that can replace current production methods.

Objective: This review describes recent progress for producing PNPs in S. cerevisiae.
Conclusion: Various PNPs, including stillbenoids, flavonoids, terpenoids and glucosinolates can now be produced in the baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a result of the growing interest in the expression of plant biosynthetic pathways in yeast, many studies have aimed at developing platform strains delivering an improved supply of precursor metabolites. Synthetic biology tools facilitate the identification of superior enzymes, balance gene expression levels in the pathway, and enable the spatial arrangement of plant-derived enzymes in yeast to optimize the performance of the introduced pathways even further.
Perspectives: The entry of CRISPR/Cas9 based technologies may allow other yeast species or filamentous fungi to be engineered for the production of PNPs.

Editor’s Choice – Hold-up in Ventures for Technology Transfer – Technology Transfer and Entrepreneurship

Journal: Technology Transfer and Entrepreneurship

Author(s): Klaus Spremann.

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Abstract:

Entrepreneurs and Investors found ventures for transferring technology and bringing it closer to the market. Focussing on a situation in which the investor exercises hold-up at the disadvantage of the entrepreneur, this paper works on three points: We identify (1) conditions which make hold-up possible, and discuss (2) measures which help entrepreneurs to protect themselves against hold-up. (3) The balance of powers in a venture is related to returns to scale. Overall, the paper contributes to the theory of small-seized firms which are exposed to high uncertainties including behavioural opportunism.

Read more here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/148584

Editor’s Choice – In-Vitro and In-Vivo Pharmacological Activities with Phytochemical Evaluation of Methanolic Extract of Microcos paniculata Stem Barks – Current Drug Therapy

Journal: Current Drug Therapy

Author(s): Md. Al-Amin Sarker, Sujan Banik, Md. Saddam Hussain, Antara Ghosh, Mohammad S. Hossain.

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Abstract:

Background and Objectives: Microcos paniculata is widely distributed throughout the Bangladesh which belongs to the family Tiliaceae. The present study was considered to determine anti-diarrheal, analgesic, membrane stabilizing and thrombolytic activities with evaluation of phytochemical nature of methanolic extract of M. paniculata steam bark.

Methods: Methanolic extract of this plant part was prepared at room temperature and the concentrated methanolic extracts used for the phytochemical screenings by using appropriate and proper procedure for the investigation of phytoconstituents. The extract was then used for investigation of in-vitro thrombolytic and membrane stabilizing activity. The in-vivo antidiarrheal and analgesic activities were done according to the method of castor oil and acetic acid induce writhing respectively.

Results: Phytochemical study reveal the presence of flavonoids, diterpenes, alkaloids, saponin, tannin and phenols. During the estimation of anti-diarrheal activity plant extract showed most significant inhibition of 63.30% and 56.70% diarrhea at 400 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, respectively. Analgesic test showed pain inhibition of 41.36% and 32.0% at 500 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg, respectively in contrast to standard drug (Ibuprofen) showed 46.64% inhibition of pain. The membrane stabilizing study showed that the inhibition of hemolysis increases respectively when the dose increased. Similar result was found in thrombolytic activity which means that when the dose increased, the thrombolytic activity of the plant extract increased.

Conclusion: By considering this result, it can be concluded that M. paniculata may lead to find novel drugs for cardiovascular and diarrheal patient and also bring hope for patients suffering with diverse pain.

Read more here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/142376/article

Editor’s Choice – Role of ncRNAs in Development, Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Cancer – Recent Patents on Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery

Journal: Recent Patents on Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery

Author(s): Francisco E. Nicolas.

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Abstract:

Background: Since the first reports of microRNAs and the advent of new sequencing technologies, a whole new world of regulatory non-conding RNAs (ncRNAs) has revolutionized our knowledge of the RNA dimension. Thousands of functional non-coding transcripts have been identified and grouped into new classes of ncRNAs attending to their origin and function. Despite the fact that we have just started to study ncRNAs, it is now clear that these new regulatory actors play an important role in most of the regulated biological processes and in almost all species.

Objective: An overview of the state of the art in ncRNAs and the development, diagnosis and treatment of human cancer.Method: NcRNAs are deeply involved in the regulation of key genes that are associated with human cancer, representing a promising field for new therapies. This review summarizes the origin, structure and function of the most relevant new classes of ncRNAs, playing special attention to the studies that have related these new regulatory factors with the development of human cancer.

Results: From a thorough literature review on scientific publications and patented applications, this review presents recent advances related to ncRNAs and human cancer. In addition, a selection of patents that use ncRNAs to develop new methodologies for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer is included and described in each class of ncRNAs.
Conclusion: The regulatory potential of ncRNAs opens a new research field that will uncover new and promising aspects in the study of human cancer.

Editor’s Choice – Chitosan Functionalized CuS Nanoparticles Boots Gene Transfection via Photothermal Effect – Current Drug Delivery

Journal: Current Drug Delivery

Author(s): Li Lin, Xiaoda Li, Yongbo Yang, Lijia Jing, Xiuli Yue, Xuzhu Chen, Zhifei Dai

 

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Abstract:

Background: The lack of smart and controllable gene vectors with high safety and efficiency is still a main obstruction for clinical applications of gene therapy. Recently, the external physical stimuli, such as near infrared light induced temperature elevation, have been applied to enhance the gene transfection efficiency and specificity. The aim of this paper is to fabricate chitosan functionalized CuS nanoparticles (CuS@CS NPs) with small size and higher biocompatibility for enhanced gene delivery by photothermal effect.

Methods: CuS@CS NPs were successfully prepared by simple hydrothermal method. The biocompatibility was detected by MTT method and hymolytic analysis. pEGFP-C1was used as gene model, and its expression efficiency was detected by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry to investigate the effect of photothermal effect on the transfection efficiency.

Results: The CuS@CS NPs around 15 nm were successfully engineered. The modification of CuS nanoparticles with chitosan conduced to higher physiological stability and biocompatibility. The utilization of CuS@CS NPs in combination with external near infrared (NIR) laser irradiation could enhance gene transfection efficiency due to photothermal effect. The gene transfection efficiency of CuS@CS NPs found to increase from 5.05±0.54% (0 min) to 23.47±1.27% (10 min), significantly higher than the free polyethylenimine (18.15±1.03%).

Conclusion: CuS@CS NPs showed great capability to control gene delivery by an external NIR laser irradiation and enhance the gene transfection efficiency and specificity because of convenient preparation, stabilized optical properties, excellent photothermal effect and good biocompatibility. It encourages further exploration of the CuS@CS NPs as a photocontrollable nanovector for combined photothermal and gene therapy, as well as image guided therapy.

Read more here: http://www.eurekaselect.com/138394